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Coal is the primary fuel for electricity generation in Republic of Kosova. 98% of electricity generation in Kosova comes from two old, inefficient and highly polluting Coal-fired Power Plants (Kosova A and B). Coal-fired Power Plants are major point sources of air pollution in Kosova. They emit substantial amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), a precursor of fine particulate and acid rain, and of nitrogen oxides (NOx, which is NO+NO2), gases influencing tropospheric ozone, in addition to producing other pollutants such as mercury and solid waste. Air pollution caused by coal energy production is a very serious environmental problem in Kosova. It has the negative impact on human health and on the biota in general. The aim of this paper is to estimate the current emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matters generated from Coal-fired Power Plants during electricity production in Kosova. Air pollutants emissions were measured by Automatic measurement system (AMS) installed at Coal-fired power plants. Emissions have been estimated by Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) according to the standard EN 15259. Samples without water vapor content were analysed by ULTRAMAT23 and DR290 analysers. The results of the study have shown that emissions of nitrogen oxides, and particulate matters from both Kosova Coal-fired Power Plants exceeded EU standards, while the emissions of carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide were in allowed level. Recommendations to minimize the emissions pollutants from Coal-fired Power Plants (Kosova A and B) are provided in this paper.Challenges Teaching Sustainability Concepts In Engineering Education
The Albanian national strategy is focused on the necessity of developing energy systems that will use different types of renewable energy in parallel, all contributing to a large complex power system. Albania is working for a reliable and sustainable energy sector development which shall be based on using all energy options in order to meet its own energy demand and to create added values for Albanian citizens in line with principles of environmental, economic and social responsibility. As the use of renewable energy sources enhances diversity in the markets, teaching engineering for sustainable development in the second level (master degree) is considered as very crucial for the development and perspective of the society. The paper aims to highlight both 1) the importance of curricula in polytechnic university of Tirana, and 2) the hypothesis to develop a teaching method closer to students’ interests and society’s needs through transforming the concept and by making it more useful and more competitive from the professional point of view. The knowledge gained on alternative sources such as: Photovoltaic systems, wind energy and fuel cells to secure sustainable energy supplies are pointed out in the student’s opinions by a questionnaire and by interviews which cover a diversity of branches and address to energy service needs such as: The reduction of atmospheric emissions and commercially attractive options. The paper ends by providing conclusions and recommendations.Controlling Performance Indicators Of A New Ceramic Glass Obtained By A Mixing Recipe Of Fly Ash, Ferronickel Slag And Waste Glass
The combined land filled quantity of the fly-ash produced by a power plant and the slag produced by a ferronickel plant amounts to 3 (three) million tons per year (Kosovo). Due to environmental considerations, using this waste to produce new value-added new materials constitutes a good way to achieve sustainable development. The development of a preliminary recipe with 20% of waste glass, 30% fly ash and 50% ferronickel slag is undertaken in cooperation with Canadian company FLOGEN in order to produce a new ceramic glass with an improved E-module value and flexural strength (fracture) compared to those produced by traditional aggregates. This recipe uses fly ash from "Kosovo Energy Corporation" (Kosovo) and ferronickel slag from "NewCo Ferronikeli" (Kosovo), which contains as main components SiO2, CaO, MgO, FeO, Fe2O3, MnO, P2O5, Cr2O3, CaS, MnS, FeS, etc. Depending on the concentration of the components (fly ash, slag, and waste of glass) and preliminary mixing, the semi-products can be used for the production of silicate tiles, pipes, ceramic elements on complex surfaces decorative brick wall, etc. Our study aims to control the performance indicators depending on the mixing ratios, the concentrations of components, process parameters, etc. By combining analytical and graphical methods.Optimazation Of Conveyer Belts Fire-resistant Rubber Properties Using A Mathematical Model Of Desirability Functions
Rubber textile conveyor belts used in underground coal mines require strong and standardized fire-resistant properties in order to guarantee the safety of the work. The purpose of this work is the optimization of the rubber ingredients, which are the main factors that give flammability to conveyor belts. The ingredients taken into consideration as factors are Sb2O3 (X1), chlorinated paraffin (X2) and clay (X3). The experiments were designed using central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of second order, according to the mathematical model of desirability functions. The fitted responses for flammability were Spirit Burner test (Y1), Surface resistance test (Y2), and Limit oxygen index, LOI (Y3). The obtained Optimized Global solution was: X1 = 0.2889; X2 = 0.39 and X3 = 0.832, while composite desirability was 0.932, which is an efficient value for desirability.Preparation And Characterization Of Ternary Nanocomposites Based On Pvc/nbr/organoclay And Study On Relationship Between Mechanical Properties And Morphological
Firstly, in this project, the PVC ternary nanocomposite was prepared by melt blending and then, the relationship between mechanical properties and morphological was studied. The nanocomposites characterization properties were analyzed by XRD, SEM and TEM. Mechanical properties tests had impact strength and tensile strength. In this nanocomposite, it was observed that systems optimization content for addition organoclay are 5% and also that using nitrile rubber and organoclay causes high increase toughening in the same time.Sustainable Wind Power Generation By Online Sensor Oil Condition Monitoring Against Premature Gearbox Bearing Failures
An online web-based oil sensor diagnosis system for continuous lubricant quality monitoring in wind turbine gearboxes is presented. The fundamental innovation is that bearing operating conditions, critical for premature failures, are detected in an early stage before any raceway damage. The electrical oil properties are identified as a sensitive loading indicator. Existing condition monitoring systems, such as vibration analysis, visual or endoscopic inspection, filters and particle counters, only respond to initial spalling. With the novel sensor unit, the specific electrical conductivity and the relative permittivity of the oil are measured in real time. A thermocouple is integrated for accompanying online temperature measurement. Under the impact of vibration loading of the rolling contact, which represents the root cause of premature bearing failures, chemical aging of the lubricant by polycondensation reactions and degradation of its additives occur. The resulting conductivity increases due to, e. G., cracked oil molecules or forming acids thus provides an indication of critical operating conditions of the monitored wind turbine gearbox. The gradual consumption of additives is reflected in a reduction of the electrical permittivity of the lubricant. As the conductivity of the oil rises with temperature, a self-learning adaptive compensation program is implemented. The measuring signals can be transmitted to a web-based condition monitoring system via LAN, WLAN or serial interfaces of the sensor.