2014-Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit
SIPS 2014 Volume 7: Energy Production, Environmental & Multiscale

Editors:Kongoli F
Publisher:Flogen Star OUTREACH
Publication Year:2014
Pages:528 pages
ISBN:978-1-987820-09-6
ISSN:2291-1227 (Metals and Materials Processing in a Clean Environment Series)
CD-SIPS2014_Volume
CD shopping page

    Technologies to Make 2nd Generation Bio-fuels

    Abdollah Esmaeili1;
    1UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS (UTP), Omidieh, Iran (Islamic Republic of Iran);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Id Paper: 103
    Topic: 15

    Abstract:

    Second-generation fuels are made from ligno-cellulosic biomass feedstock using advanced technical processes. Ligno-cellulosic sources include 'woody', 'carbonous' materials that do not compete with food production, such as leaves, tree bark, straw or woodchips. However, in the long term, many envisage biofuels being made from materials that are not even dependent on arable land, such as algal materials growing in water.
    The processes for developing second-generation biofuels are much more complex than those used for first-generation fuels and both the technologies and the logistics are still at a very early stage. While with first-generation biofuels, natural oils are extracted from the plants to produce fuel, second-generation processes, working with waste and 'woody' materials require complex catalysis and chemical alteration procedures to create the oils in the first place. From various processes currently being developed to produce second generation biofuels are: 1-the bio-chemical method: transformation of ligno-cellulosic materials into ethanol 2- The Biomass-to-Liquid (BtL) method (also known as the thermo-chemical method or gasification) 3- Hydrogenation and cracking 4- flash pyrolysis. The enzymatic approach works to recover sugars in lignocellulosic materials. The thermochemical technologies are able to use heterogeneous material as feedstock, using heat to convert these carbon-rich materials into gas. The gasification process converts carbon-rich residues into a synthetic gas. In a new technology which uses flash pyrolysis, biomass is heated for less than 2 seconds to produce liquid bio-oil that retains 60% of the carbon in the biomass (also known as carbon efficiency). In this paper, we discuss various technologies to make 2nd generation biofuels.

    Full Text:

    Click here to access the Full Text

    Cite this article as:

    Esmaeili A. Technologies to Make 2nd Generation Bio-fuels. In: Kongoli F, editors. Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit SIPS 2014 Volume 7: Energy Production, Environmental & Multiscale. Volume 7. Montreal(Canada): FLOGEN Star Outreach. 2014. p. 287-288.