2015-Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit
SIPS 2015 Volume 10: Mineral & Secondary Battery

Editors:Kongoli F, Silva AC, Arol AI, Kumar V, Aifantis K
Publisher:Flogen Star OUTREACH
Publication Year:2015
Pages:340 pages
ISSN:2291-1227 (Metals and Materials Processing in a Clean Environment Series)
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    Thermodynamic Model for Design and Optimization of Waste Lead Acid Batteries Smelting

    Alessandro Pescetelli1; Cosmo Sancilio2; Antonino Tine2;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Id Paper: 130
    Topic: 14


    At the beginning of its operation, the Italian Mandatory Consortium for collection and recycling of waste lead acid battery had to carry out an assessment of already existing recycling facilities in Italy, as to smelting capacity and to environmental performance as well. The Consortium entrusted Texeco Engineering s.r.l. (now Texeco Consulting) to perform an independent audit of the different existing recycling plants because of its long lasting experience in secondary lead operation. The entirety of Italian secondary smelters is based on the operation of short rotary furnaces (SRF) that generally are the production bottleneck. In order to carry out such commitment, Texeco developed a thermodynamic model of the SRF, based on the general thermodynamic software HSC Chemistry by Outokumpu Technology, thus creating a standard and indisputable tool, suitable to grant a reliable and accepted assessment of the SRF capacity, on the basis of a given lead charge and additives receipt, as stated by each plant operator and furnaces size. The model output provides equilibrium compositions of each phase (bullion, slag, gas), fuel and air/oxygen requirements, temperature and composition of process gases, required time length of one batch. The model was experienced and field-validated in 7 Italian recycling plants, equipped with 14 SRF with nominal capacities ranging from 4000 to 8000 lt. Of course the application of the Texeco model is not limited to assessment of existing capacities, but it has been successfully applied to engineering design of new furnaces and relevant process gas treatment unit in different projects. The model has a broad application for different heating systems (air or oxygen, oil or natural gas) and different charges that is why the model is also a powerful tool in evaluating new secondary lead projects feasibility, as well as expansion and/or retrofitting of existing installation, optimization of performance of any existing operation.


    Engineering; Industry; Modeling; Recycling; SecondaryBattery; Technology;


    [1] “Outukumpu HSC Chemistry for Windows – Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium Software with Extensive Thermochemical Database”, Antti Roinen, Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium Computer Software ibn Chemical and Extractive Metallurgy, Quebec, 1993
    [2] “Lead/Acid Batteries”, A. Pescetelli, E. Paolucci and A. Tinè (Texeco srl), from “Used Battery Collection and Recycling” by G. Pistoia, J.-P. Wiaux and S.P. Wolsky (Editors), 2001 Elsevier Science B.V

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    Pescetelli A, Sancilio C, Tine A. Thermodynamic Model for Design and Optimization of Waste Lead Acid Batteries Smelting. In: Kongoli F, Silva AC, Arol AI, Kumar V, Aifantis K, editors. Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit SIPS 2015 Volume 10: Mineral & Secondary Battery. Volume 10. Montreal(Canada): FLOGEN Star Outreach. 2015. p. 243-254.