2015-Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit
SIPS 2015 Volume 10: Mineral & Secondary Battery

Editors:Kongoli F, Silva AC, Arol AI, Kumar V, Aifantis K
Publisher:Flogen Star OUTREACH
Publication Year:2015
Pages:340 pages
ISBN:978-1-987820-33-1
ISSN:2291-1227 (Metals and Materials Processing in a Clean Environment Series)
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    Thermodynamic Study of Leaching of Active Mass from Spent Li-Ion Batteries

    Zita Takacova1; Tomas Havlik2;
    1TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF KOSICE, 04200, Slovakia (Slovak Republic); 2TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF KOSICE, FACULTY OF METALLURGY,, Kosice, Slovakia (Slovak Republic);
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Id Paper: 215
    Topic: 14

    Abstract:

    The work deals with the thermodynamics of leaching of the active mass from spent Li-ion batteries (LiBs) in acidic media - in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. The active mass contains oxide phases of cobalt, lithium, manganese and nickel in the form of LiCoO2, LiNiO2, LiMn2O4, graphite and others. In the active mass, other phases of cobalt and lithium can be present as a result of decomposition of the constituents during the discharge or overcharging of LiBs in their life cycle. Thermodynamic study was carried out by software HSC Chemistry 6.1. IGo was calculated for the predicted chemical reactions in the temperature range 20-80 AC and E-pH diagrams were constructed. It was found that IG0 reached the negative values almost for all reactions in the monitored temperature range in both of leaching media. It means that the expected chemical reactions can proceed during the leaching in the direction of product formation. For the design of E-pH diagrams, the acidic pH range was considered. According to the E-pH diagrams, cobalt is present in ionic form in both leaching agents throughout the whole water stability area to the pH ~ 5-7, depending on the temperature. At higher pH, cobalt can precipitate from solution as CoSO4.7H2O (only in sulfate medium) or Co(OH)2. Lithium is present in ionic form throughout the whole water stability area in the whole acid pH range. Thermodynamic study confirmed the viability of cobalt and lithium leaching from spent LiBs in the sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid as well.

    Keywords:

    Dynamics; Li-Ion; Lithium; Recycling; SecondaryBattery; Technology;

    References:

    [1] Fuel cell and battery technology, lithium batteries: market and materials, [18.03.2015], http://www.bccresearch.com/report/FCB028D.html
    [2] Gaines L., Nelson P.: Lithium-Ion Batteries: Possible Materials Issues, [13.01.2015], http://www.transportation.anl.gov/pdfs/B/583.PDF
    [3] Linden D., Reddy T.B.: Handbook of Batteries, 3th Edition, McGraw-Hill 2001, ISBN 0-07-135978-8.
    [4] Kiehne H.A.: Battery technology handbook, p.515, ISBN: 0-8247-4249-4.
    [5] Roine, HSC chemistry, ver. 6.1 software Outotec Research Oy.

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    Cite this article as:

    Takacova Z and Havlik T. Thermodynamic Study of Leaching of Active Mass from Spent Li-Ion Batteries. In: Kongoli F, Silva AC, Arol AI, Kumar V, Aifantis K, editors. Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit SIPS 2015 Volume 10: Mineral & Secondary Battery. Volume 10. Montreal(Canada): FLOGEN Star Outreach. 2015. p. 299-306.