2016-Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit
SIPS 2016 Volume 8: Non-ferrous, Rotary Kiln, Ferro-alloys, Rare Earth, Coal

Editors:Kongoli F, Xueyi G, Shumskiy V, Kozlov P, Capiglia C, Silva AC, Turna T
Publisher:Flogen Star OUTREACH
Publication Year:2016
Pages:350 pages
ISSN:2291-1227 (Metals and Materials Processing in a Clean Environment Series)
CD shopping page

    Experimental Investigation on Bubble Formation from Multi-Hole Nozzles

    Hongjie Yan1; Junbing Xiao1; Zhiwen Hu2;
    1CENTRAL SOUTH UNIVERSITY, Changsha, China; 2, Changsha, China;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Id Paper: 339
    Topic: 6


    Bubble formation is extensively studied by various operating conditions mostly investigated on single-hole nozzle or porous nozzle. However, few investigation is focused on bubble formation process generated from multi-hole nozzles. In present work, bubble formation was originally studied by injecting nitrogen with different gas flow rates through multi-hole nozzles submerged in quiescent water. Different nozzles with different number of holes were employed to investigate the influence of holes on bubble formation. The process of bubble formation was captured by a high speed camera and analyzed by a digital image processing algorithm. The bubbling regimes, bubble diameter and circularity were applied to quantitatively analyze the bubble formation. Drawing from the results, the bubble regimes were categorized into single bubbling with delayed release, double bubbling with delayed release and double bubbling without delayed release. Simultaneously, different stages of the formation process were divided to describe the bubble formation. Afterwards, bubble diameter and circularity were quantitatively analyzed to investigate bubble characteristics. An appropriate equation for prediction of bubble diameter was proposed by combining the opening ratio, inner diameter of nozzle and Reynold number. It was found that the bubble formation process from multi-hole nozzles was pretty regular and noticeably stable. As a result, the present work can not only benefit the research on bubble formation generated from multi-hole nozzles but also guide the application of multi-hole nozzles in practice.


    Non-Ferrous; Smelting;Bubble formation; Multi-hole nozzle; Bubbling regime; Opening ratio.


    [1] I. Leibson, E.G. Holcomb, A.G. Cacoso and J.J. Jacmic: Rate of flow and mechanics of bubble formation from single submerged orifices. I. Rate of flow studies, Optics Express, 2 (1956), 296-300.
    [2] S.C. Cho and W.K. Lee: Steam bubble formation at a submerged orifice in quiescent water, Chemical Engineering Science, 46 (1991), 789-795.
    [3] J.A. Simmons, J.E. Sprittles and Y.D. Shikhmurzaev: The formation of a bubble from a submerged orifice, European Journal of Mechanics - B/Fluids, 53 (2015), 24-36.
    [4] H. Ooyabu, A. Hiratsuka, R. Tsujino and M. Iguchi: Frequency of Bubble Formation from a Multi-Hole Nozzle Attached to a Top Lance, Materials Transactions, 50 (2009), 1812-1819.
    [5] H. Ooyabu, A. Hiratsuka, R. Tsujino and M. Iguchi, Proceedings of the Japan Society for Photoelasticity, 2010. Effects of inner nozzle diameter and hole diameter on the frequency of bubble formation from a multi-hole nozzle, 10, 13-19.
    [6] C. C. Gao, P. X. Yuan and H. R. Chen: On lance for oxygen bottom-blown smelting, China Nonferrous Metallurgy, 6(2006), 13-17.
    [7] Corchero, G., J. L. Montañés, and J. C. Téllez: Effect of flow rate conditions on bubble formation, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55 (2012), 5044-5052.
    [8] H. Tsuge, Y. Tanaka and Shin-Ici Hibino: Effect of the physical properties of gas on the volume of bubble formed from a submerged single orifice, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 59 (1981), 569–572.
    [9] H. Tsuge, M. Mitsudani and Y. Tezuka: The Effect of Nozzle Shape on Bubble Formation from a Downward Nozzle, Chemical Engineering and Technology, 29 (2006), 1097–1101.
    [10] J. Fang and G.C. Guo, Effect of Hole Distance and Hole Number on Bubble Behavior during Gas Injection with Multi-Hole Orifices, Advanced Materials Research, 295 (2011), 1113-1119.
    [11] F. Jiang, G.G. Cheng and H.K. Yang: Effect of Gas Injection with Multi-hole Orifices on Bubble Behavior during Metal Refining, Advanced Materials Research, 233-235 (2011), 1940-1945.
    [12] D.J. Mccann and R.G.H. Prince: Regimes of bubbling at a submerged orifice, Chemical Engineering Science, 26 (1971), 1505-1512.
    [13] T. Miyahara, M. Iwata and T. Takahashi: Bubble formation pattern with weeping at a submerged orifice, Journal of chemical engineering of Japan, 17 (1984), 592-597.
    [14] N. Kyriakides, E. Kastrinakis, S. Nychas and A. Goulas: Bubbling from nozzles submerged in water: transitions between bubbling regimes, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 75 (1997), 684-691.
    [15] V. Badam, V. Buwa and F. Durst: Experimental investigations of regimes of bubble formation on submerged orifices under constant flow condition, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 85 (2007), 257-267.
    [16] H. Tsuge and Shin-Ici Hibino: Bubble formation from an orifice submerged in liquids, Chemical Engineering Communications, 22 (1983), 63-79.
    [17] A.A. Kulkarni and J.B. Joshi: Bubble formation and bubble rise velocity in gas-liquid systems: A review, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 44 (2005), 5873-5931.
    [18] F. Johnson, D. Craig, A. Mercer and S. Chauhan: The use of image analysis as a means of monitoring bubble formation in alginate rafts, International journal of pharmaceutics, 170 (1998), 179-185.
    [19] P. Willems, A. Kemperman, R. Lammertink, M. Wessling, M. van Sint Annaland, N. Deen, J. Kuipers and W. Van der Meer: Bubbles in spacers: Direct observation of bubble behavior in spacer filled membrane channels, Journal of Membrane Science, 333 (2009), 38-44.
    [20] E. Camarasa, C. Vial, S. Poncin, G. Wild, N. Midoux and J. Bouillard: Influence of coalescence behaviour of the liquid and of gas sparging on hydrodynamics and bubble characteristics in a bubble column, Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 38 (1999), 329-344.
    [21] H. Cheng, J. Hills and B. Azzopardi: Effects of initial bubble size on flow pattern transition in a 28.9 mm diameter column, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 28 (2002), 1047-1062.
    [22] G.P. Celata, M. Cumo, F D’Annibale, P. Di Marco, A. Tomiyama and C. Zovini: Effect of gas injection mode and purity of liquid on bubble rising in two-component systems, Experimental thermal and fluid science, 31 (2006), 37-53.
    [23] L. Liu, H.J. Yan and G.J. Zhao: Experimental studies on the shape and motion of air bubbles in viscous liquids, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 62 (2015), 109-121.
    [24] J. Ma, P. Zhou, W. Cheng, Y.P. Song and P.Y. Shi: Dimensional analysis and experimental study of gas penetration depth model for submerged side-blown equipment, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 75 (2016), 220-227.
    [25] X. Zongyuan: Bubble formation and bubble-wall interaction at a submerged orifice, PhD, 2005.
    [26] S. Ramakrishnan, R. Kumar and N. Kuloor Studies in bubble formation-I bubble formation under constant flow conditions, Chemical Engineering Science, 24 (1969), 731-747.
    [27] A. Kupferberg and G. Jameson: Bubble formation at a submerged orifice above a gas chamber of finite volume, Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, 47 (1969), 241-250.

    Full Text:

    Click here to access the Full Text

    Cite this article as:

    Yan H, Xiao J, Hu Z. Experimental Investigation on Bubble Formation from Multi-Hole Nozzles. In: Kongoli F, Xueyi G, Shumskiy V, Kozlov P, Capiglia C, Silva AC, Turna T, editors. Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit SIPS 2016 Volume 8: Non-ferrous, Rotary Kiln, Ferro-alloys, Rare Earth, Coal. Volume 8. Montreal(Canada): FLOGEN Star Outreach. 2016. p. 199-212.