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    Controlling Indoor Benzene Concentrations Using A Fuzzy System
    N. Pitalua1 ;E. Herrera López2 ;L. Velázquez Contreras1 ;N. Munguia Vega1 ;
    1Universidad De Sonora, HERMOSILLO, Mexico; 2Ciatej, GUADALAJARA, Mexico;

    A critique to sustainability initiatives is their bias to environmental issues paying inadequate attention to social and economic initiatives such as all related to occupational health and safety. For this reason, this study conceives sustainability as a broad structural concept that takes into account human health concerns. Indoor occupational exposure to hazardous concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) at small workshops could have impact in the workers' health, resulting in severe intoxication, respiratory diseases or even cancer. Therefore controlling the concentration of (VOCs) in closed rooms is necessary in order to avoid workers' injuries. In this manuscript it is presented a strategy with the aim of reducing hazardous indoor air benzene concentrations in small workshops through the use of a fuzzy logic controller. The closed room is separated in two well defined zones through the Near Field-Far Field (NF-FF) model. From the knowledge of the (NF-FF) model a Mamdani fuzzy model controller was designed to maintain the benzene concentration within secure levels for the workers. Fuzzy systems can be analyzed as a mapping between an input data vector (error) and a control output. The input-output behavior is defined by fuzzy rules which infers an output value from an input value. We use a fuzzy control system which characterizes the duty cycle required by a pulse width modulator (PWM) to control the DC motors speed of some exhaust fans to keep the indoor air benzene concentration within the regulations established by the EPA (0.03 mg/m3). The simulation results show that the proposed fuzzy control is promissory to assure indoor air quality in this kind of work environments.

    Determination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (pcbs) Levels In Water Of Drin River Regional Transboundary System
    A. Neziri1 ;I. Malollari2 ;
    1University Of Shkodra, Albania, Shkodra, Albania; 2University Of Tirana, Tirana, Albania;

    The Drin River is the “connecting body” of a water system, linking the lakes, wetlands, rivers and other aquatic habitats into a single ecosystem of major importance. The water bodies and their watersheds are spread in a geographical area that includes Albania, Greece, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Kosovo. The main sources of pollution are considered to be the following: Untreated domestic sewage that is discharged untreated along the course of the river as well as in the artificial lakes, unsustainable wastewater management may impact groundwater as well, considerable quantities of urban solid wastes, agriculture, mining, industrial activities, etc. A number of PCB congeners were identified and quantified in water samples of Drin River. A total of 32 surface water samples at 8 sampling sites were collected in four seasons of 2011-2012. The PCBs were identified and quantified in the water by using L/L extraction combined with GC-µECD instrumental analyses. The total concentration of PCBs (∑PCBs) in the river water ranged from 38.6 to 345 ng/L. An inclusive transboundary integrated monitoring of toxic organic micropollutants is needed in this area in the future.

    Ecological And Technological Aspects Of Use Of Water Recirculation At Extraction Of Precious Metals From Quartzites
    N. Tyushkova1 ;
    1Nitu \"misis\", Moscow, Russian Federation;

    The examination of the worked out technology of enrichment of gold bearing quartzites and exploration of full water rotation during the technological process was the main purpose of this research. Taking into consideration environmental increasing demands during pilot examination, the use of sewage water in the process of extraction of gold and silver from gold-bearing quartzites of Mandeuly deposit was studied. The results of technological research of ore, obtained in pilot conditions, show that direct cyanidation of reduced ore (up to 95% of fracture - 0, 08 mm.) was the most effective method. The extraction of gold fluctuates from 91,7% up to 100%. The extraction of silver fluctuates as well (48%-68%). These fluctuations can be seen only if the contents of noble metals in final tailings of solvent extraction makes up 0, 1-0, 2 gramm/ton in gold and 9, 7-6, 4gramm/ton in silver. Obtained results, approved in pilot. The research of continuous process of a counterflow washing of tails of solvent extraction with gold and silver settlement from overflow of first densifier on anion resin AM-2B allowed to make a very important conclusion, from the point of view of environmental protection, about the possibility of repeated use of barren solution in the course of a solvent extraction and washing of the dissolved precious metals without decreasing the production data. The ionic structure of cyclic water recirculation changes slightly, and the liquid phase received in the process of the secondary treatment of quartzites, can be used six times. Laboratory and technological researches of concentration tailings of quartzites from Mandeuly deposit showed that they can be used as the main raw materials for production of silicate wall materials(lime sand brick, manufactured product from heavy cellular concrete), which in terms of physical and mechanical characteristics, meet the requirements of all-Union State Standart. First of all, when developing mineral deposits, the technologies are directed to increasing the extraction from ores of useful components at reduction of volumes of dump products and to reducing the content of harmful impurities in them. These technologies significantly reduce the level of environment pollution and other negative ecological consequences.

    Elaboration And Characterization Of An Activated Carbon From Esparto Grass For The Wastewater Treatment.
    L. Azzeddine1 ;
    1Algiers University, Algiers, Algeria;

    The esparto and the diss play a significant role for the sustainable development. This work provides opportunities to develop cost-effective activated carbons from Stipa Tenacissima (Esparto or Alfa is the Arab name for esparto) and diss (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus). The preparation of activated carbon from agricultural waste could increase economic return and reduce pollution. The objectives of this work are the elaboration and the characterization of activated carbon (ACs) from diss and esparto grass fibres under vacuum condition with chemical activation method using zinc chloride (ZnCl2) as activating agents. The surface organic structures were studied using a FTIR spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the activated carbons was analyzed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX). To define the metallic oxides residues we analyzed the samples by X-ray diffraction (Small-Angle X-ray Scattering). The BET surface areas of the activated carbons from esparto and diss fibres produced are 953m2/g and 754m2/g, respectively. The pore size was calculated by the BJH method. The distribution could be tailored in the range of 1.3–2.7nm. The activated carbons (AC) so developed were able to remove 0.042 mmole/g of Methylene blue (MB). These experimental results indicated the future use of esparto and diss fibres for removing a wide variety of metal ions.

    Measurement Of Electrokinetic Zeta-potential Of The Suspension Formed From Smelting Slag
    D. Urosevic1 ;
    1Institute For Mining And Metallurgy Bor, Bor, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia);

    This paper presents the results of measurements of electrokinetic zeta-potential in the suspension formed from fine grinded copper smelting slag, relating to copper flotation. This is a different one comparing to those formed from fine grinded ore. As the main goal to recover remaining copper from slag by flotation, the extended laboratory investigations were done in study with some physical and chemical characteristics of this material. The main problem is how to maintain stability of this suspension because it is very unstable and the particles fast settle down even in dynamic conditions when the system is mixed. Suspension stability is the main factor to a successful flotation process. Suspension stability was studied by sedimentation tests and by determination of zeta potential. This paper presents some relevant results of copper slag suspension study by zeta potential. As the well-known fact that the zeta potential has important role in system stability, the higher absolute values of zeta potential the better stability of the certain system. In these investigations the main goal was to achieve higher absolute values of zeta potentials by adding certain dispersing agents in order to increase its absolute values and on the other hand, to decrease the rate of sedimentation. The dispersing agents were sodium polyacrilate and sodium silicate in various amounts and in different pH of system. Sodium polyacrylate and sodium silicate are adsorbed on the surface of the particles and change of surface charge. These changes of charge are determined by zeta potential measurements. In this case were measured mean zeta potential in the suspension were measured. The sodium silicate concentration was 5mg/l and 100mg /l, and sodium polyacrilate was 50mg/l and 100 mg/l, at the several pH values. The PH was adjusted by sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide. It was found that the addition of these dispersant ensures greater stability of the suspension formed from smelting slag. The values of the zeta potential ranged from -17 up to -28mV in the presence of sodium silicate and from -21 up to -29mV in the presence of sodium polyacrylate. Measured values of the zeta potential without adding dispersants were found to range from -13 up to -18mV.

    Mercury Content Loam Covering Is A Pollution Problem Selection Or Solution For The Vlora- Albania Pvc Production Ex-factory
    P. Kotori1 ;I. Malollari2 ;
    1University Of Vlora,, Vlora, Albania; 2University Of Tirana, Tirana, Albania;

    The rehabilitation of the Soda-PVC production ex-factory territory has been a real problem. It has been undertaken, treated and studied in order to find a definitive solution targeted as “Vlora Hot Spot”. UNEP has carefully described and reported the efforts spent so far, somehow in headlines, and it has recently reported some results. This problem, similarly so important as other stabilization methods being applied to some Mercury content residues, has received some evaluation and application within employed processes, involving special treatment. The main processes applied with these loam, are reported as follows:  Actual situation conservation;  Polluted loam transportation and displacement toward another area; There are two different ways of acting with polluted territory or contaminated land: • Actions with eternal safe territory; • Actions of continuously improving territory; Based on matrices operatory, as well known as an indicative for the ground rehabilitation evaluation for the Mercury contaminated loams, and furthering with a landfill contraction, being nominated and defined as “Loam covering”. In this process, contaminated loam encapsulation takes place, covering concrete structures of buildings, and covering low content surface territory, as well. Roofing systems give an impermeable obstacle within contaminated land in its source, and infiltration of surface waters. The main objective of the roofing (coverings) has been to avoid further water infiltration through contaminated material and to transfer the contaminants into the surface waters. Roofing, including putting an impermeable membrane as cover to hide the exposure of contaminants, as well as a further layer of ground (loam) was being put over. Plantation through seeding or other grassy ground is one suitable solution against the extension of contamination. Besides this, a water collector was needed, such as channels around the coverings. A monitoring of the collected waters has been performed for the evaluation of the obstacle magnitude.

    Metals Recovery Form Waste Of Printed Circuit Boards Processed In Plasmatron Plasma Reactor
    J. Szalatkiewicz1 ;
    1Industrial Research Institute For Automation And Measurements, , Warsaw (Warszawa), Poland;

    This paper presents an investigation of printed circuit boards (PCB) waste processing in plasmatron plasma reactor. A test setup was designed and built allowing research over plasma processing of PCB waste in more than 700kg/day scale. The process in tests consumed 2kWh/kg of processed waste. An investigation of the products process, in form of metals and slag, is presented with their elemental analysis. An average recovery of metals in presented experiments is 76%, and waste mass reduction, 45%. The investigated mass balance of the process indicates partial metal oxidation in the plasma process. It is estimated that metals oxidation is responsible for 2-10% of metals recovery reduction, and 10-20% of slag mass increase. Briefly, the chosen process parameters are presented: Energy consumption, throughput, process temperatures and air consumption.

    Partly Dislocation Of The Industrial Waste From Mitrovica Industrial Park And It’s Impact In The Environment
    B. Baruti1 ;B. Mustafa1 ;I. Malollari2 ;N. Lajçi3 ;A. Vitaku4 ;M. Kelmendi1 ;
    1University Of Prishtina-faculty Of Mining And Metallurgy, Mitrovica, Kosovo; 2University Of Tirana, Tirana, Albania; 3Faculty Of Geosciences And Technology, University Of Prishtina, Mitrovica, Kosovo; 4University Of Prishtina, Mitrovica, Kosovo;

    Industrial Complex `TREPÇA`` and especially Mitrovica region were surrounded by many tailings from industrial waste deposited in the past. This tailings are not only causing air, water and soil pollution, but also disorder in biodiversity with a huge impact on the population health. Mitrovica Industrial Park tailings contain four types of industrial waste: Phosphate gypsum, jarosite, waste created from the process of pyrite and pyrotine roasting and the industrial waste created from the leaching process of zinc concentrate known as EIMCO tailing. This tailing extends over an area of 34.62 hectares and it is estimated that the total quantity of these residues is 1.520.000tons. These industrial wastes contain different and toxic heavy metal switch. Unfortunately, this tailing is not maintained, it is open and unstable. The area around the tailings area is populated and it is only 0.5 km from the city center. The results obtained in 15 cases from May to June 2012 show that the amount of lead in the blood among residents near the tailings is higher than the normal. The historical industrial waste impact area, which needs to be rehabilitated with protective measure from further pollution, is about 160km2. According to some analysis, the situation is even more difficult after the sale of certain quantity of industrial waste-EIMCO tailing, because considerable amount of dust is still present in the air and further sedimentation in soil layers is expected. In order to determine the environmental effects of these tailings, certain analysis of different parameters have been done with modern instruments and methods with equipment for environmental analysis NITON XRF 700(EPA 6200). From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the environmental impact of the landfill is quite pronounced. Based on the results obtained, we concluded the industrial waste treatment will be a significant generator for new jobs and revenue that could be used for the rehabilitation of contaminated areas. This treatment would be made within a closed cycle, where the environment will not be polluted and some work will be done with environmental standards.

    Potential Key Challenges For Agro-forestry And Animal Wastes Biomass To Energy And Environment For Sustainable Development Of Albania
    I. Malollari1 ;B. Baruti2 ;L. Xhagolli1 ;P. Kotori3 ;A. Bekteshi4 ;F. Gjyriqi1 ;
    1University Of Tirana, Tirana, Albania; 2University Of Prishtina-faculty Of Mining And Metallurgy, Mitrovica, Kosovo; 3University Of Vlora,, Vlora, Albania; 4University Of Shkodra, Shkoder, Albania;

    Biomass energy is important for the future of Albania, consisting of the following four main resources: Urban wastes, agricultural residues, forest residues, and animal wastes. The potential of urban wastes from the main cities of Albania was calculated as approximately 405615 Toe-ton oil equivalent, predicted for the year 2010. The energy potential from agricultural residues was calculated at approximately 43004 GJ since 1995. Forestry biomass resources were calculated to be approximately 460 million of GJ since1995. The energy potential from animal residues was calculated at approximately 12 740 GJ since 1995 with a tendency to increase in the future. These numbers should be considered estimates. A more comprehensive study should be carried out for real validation. Biomass resources and potentials assessment for Albania have been studied and evaluated within the National Programmes of Research and Development frame supported by the Albanian Ministry of Education and Science and the Agency of Research, Technology and Innovation, for the period 2010-2012. Biomass contribution to the energy supply has been growing since decades. Renewable energy development targets underline challenges for bio-energy increase for heat and/or electricity production. One of the main challenges is the development of biomass production and the supply for all competing sectors in the future. In order to address the issues related to the assessment of future biomass production, we reviewed biomass resources in Albania and studies on potential assessments. We hope our team will benefit from the comparison of biomass supply from forestry residues, wood industry residues, agriculture residues (straw, permanent crops-field residues) and animal residues. Our aim was to screen, review and gather knowledge of ligno-cellulose biomass in Albania. The biomass potentials were estimated on the basis of exploitable forestry areas, agriculture areas as well as manures. Recently, our study has been at the forefront of research and education in the closely interlinked spheres of energy, environment, technology, economy, security, and development. There are some barriers to biomass energy and key drivers related to Information, Technical and Economic barriers which were considered in details and gathered experience to endorse broader subject of the future studies in the chosen field.

    Properties Of Sintering Ore Mixed Mswi Fly Ash
    J. Yang1 ;Q. Liu1 ;Y. He1 ;Q. Yang1 ;W. Gao1 ;
    1Chongqing University, Chongqing, China;

    In order to dispose the MSWI fly ash, it has been mixed into the materials to produce sintering ore. Then, the properties of the sintering ore have been detected. The results showed that the mechanical strength has increased by 5%. The reduction performance has increased to 93.83%. Meanwhile, the RDI resistance has descended by 12%.

    Removal Of Astrazon Yellow 7gl From Aqueous Solutions By Adsorption Onto Waste Wood Powder: Kinetic And Equilibrium Studies
    L. Azzeddine1 ;
    1Algiers University, Algiers, Algeria;

    The purpose of this work is to introduce a way to eliminate Basic Yellow (BY) textile colouring agent Astrazon yellow (BY) from aqueous solutions by adsorption using natural organic materials. Particularly in the wood industry, waste is generated in powder form at all levels of wood transformation. This wood powder (WP) waste is provided by Transbois Factory of Algeria. Moreover, two important aims are reached: The contribution in treatment of coloured effluent caused by the textile industry and the valorisation of vegetable biomass. The results obtained can be stated as follows: The scanning electron micrographs of wood powder show a qualitative porosity varying from 20 to 35m. From the pH 4, the maximum of the removal percentage can be reached. The percentage colour removal decreased from 78.64% to 58.77% as the initial concentration varies from 25 to 50 mg/L. The removal efficiency of BY increases as the solid/liquid ratio. The present results are recovered by Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin models. The adsorption capacity (Qmax) calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was 95.24mg. G-1 for the optimal conditions. A comparison of kinetic models showed that dye/adsorbent system was best described by the pseudo second-order kinetics.

    Removal Of Methylene Blue From Coloured Effluents By Adsorption Onto Znapso-34 Nanoporous Material
    L. Azzeddine1 ;A. Brahim1 ;A. Mohammed1 ;T. Kamel1 ;
    1Algiers University, Algiers, Algeria;

    The effluents of wastewater in some industries such as textiles, leather, paper and plastics contain various kinds of synthetic dyes. The removal of emerging contaminants of concern is now as important as ever in the production of safe drinking water and the environmentally responsible release of wastewater. Molecular sieves like aluminosilicate or aluminophosphate materials contain tiny pores of precise and uniform size, which are used as adsorbents, catalyst carriers, desiccants, and so on. Among the AlPOs, the metalloaluminophosphates (MAPO) and metallosilicoaluminophosphates (MAPSO materials encompass the characteristics of both zeolites and aluminophosphates, which results in their unique catalytic, ion-exchange and adsorbent properties. The effects of equilibrium time, solution pH, and sorption temperature of cationic methylene blue (MB) adsorption on nanoporous metallosilicoaluminophosphate ZnAPSO-34 were studied using a batch equilibration method. UV–VIS spectroscopy was used to obtain the adsorption isotherms at 20° C. The optimum period for adsorption was 300 min. However, MB removal increased from 81,82 % to 94,81 %. The equilibrium adsorption data was analysed by using Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the better-fitting model and the process followed pseudo second–order kinetics. The results showed that ZnAPSO-34 could be employed as an effective material and could be an attractive alternative for the removal of dyes and colors from aqueous solutions.

    Reuse And Recycling Of Contaminated Effluents From Aviation Industry Using A New Module By Electrooxidation
    L. Irianda1 ;A. Ramirez2 ;M. Mancera2 ;J. Torres2 ;A. Ramirez2 ;R. Cruz Gaona1 ;R. Briones Gallardo1 ;
    1Universidad Autonoma De San Luis Potosi, SAN LUIS POTOSI, SLP, Mexico; 2Centro De Investigacion Y Desarrollo De TecnologÍa En Electroquimica Sc, QUERETARO, Mexico;

    Within the aerospace industry, which provides repair services for landing gear components, features various types of wastewater with emulsifiers, heavy metals (Ni, Cr and Cd) and high conductivity with fats and oils, hot rinses, rinse with wax and other effluents that do not meet the legal discharge parameters, requires disposal, treatment or appropriate destruction of such hazardous wastes. In this work, we designed and implemented a module of wastewater treatment by electrooxidation (EC-102) and we achieved treat at least three types of wastewater. The quality of water obtained at the end of module EC-102 was suitable for sanitary use, irrigation discharge, lines service and in the same plaiting process.

    Structural Characterization Of Seydisehir Red Mud To Utilization In Roof Tile Manufacturing
    S. Piskin1 ;S. Piskin1 ;E. Ozkan1 ;U. Ozcay2 ;
    1Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Gürallar Tile Factory, Kutahya, Turkey;

    Red mud (RM) is a waste material generated by the Bayer Process widely used to produce alumina from bauxite throughout the world. The amount of red mud generated depends largely on the type of ore used and its processing. Approximately 35% to 40% per ton of bauxite treated using the Bayer Process ends up as red mud waste. Because of storing issues, the waste negatively affects the environment. To solve this problem, it is essential to investigate different uses for red mud waste. This study, at first, describes the characterization of red mud by XRF, FT-IR, XRD, DTA-TG and SEM. In addition, studies were done for red mud use in tile. Three different amounts of red mud (2%, 4% and 6%) were mixed with standard tile mix, which used in industrial application at Gürallar tile factory. Prepared samples fired to 900ºC, 940ºC, 980ºC and 1020ºC. Compressive strength (kg/m3) of samples are measured to determine the most suitable red mud content for industrial tile production in accordance with TSE EN 1304 standard. It is found that Compressive strength values of fired samples increased with the increasing of RM content and firing temperature. Red mud content for industrial tile production in accordance with TSE EN 1304 standard was found to be maximum 6%.

    Study Of The Population Dynamics Of Yeasts In Continuous System For Copper Biosorption
    O. Monge1 ;
    1Universidad De Sonora, Hermosillo, Mexico;

    Mining activities cause rivers and lakes pollution with copper and other heavy metals, both during operation and after leaving. For the treatment of liquid effluents containing heavy metals, different physical, chemical and biological. In this paper, we studied the population dynamics of yeasts isolated from San Pedro River in continuous system for copper biosorption. Two strains of yeast were characterized and identified as a consortium that has grown in an acidic environment for biosorption process using a continuous reactor system upstream aerobic packed with zeolite. Yeast strains were identified by molecular tests as Candida tropicalis and Issatchenka orientalis, which were used to perform three experimental runs in the reactor, at an initial concentration of 20 mgCu (II) / L recirculating biomass. During these three experimental runs, the pH was maintained between 4 and 5. In the first run, experimental results were obtained in removal of 95% the first day of experimentation, while in the second run three stirred for 44 and 53% respectively. In this work, it was shown that the yeast used and the inactivated zeolite as biomass support continuous systems are effective in removing copper and can be an alternative to the use of chemical agents.

    The Physical-chemical And Biological Characteristics Of Wastewater From Kosova Coal-fired Power Plants
    Z. Gashi1 ;N. Lajçi2 ;X. Lajçi3 ;
    1Kosova A Thermal Power Plant, Prishtina, Kosovo; 2Faculty Of Geosciences And Technology, University Of Prishtina, Mitrovica, Kosovo; 3Beer Factory “birra Peja”, Peja, Kosovo;

    Reliable and safe operation of a Coal-fired power plant is strongly linked to freshwater resources, and environmental problems related to water source and wastewater discharging are challenging the power plant operation. Kosova Coal-fired power plants use large quantities of water and provide no wastewater treatment. Wastewater discharges represent the main source of natural waters pollution, because they contain substances that consume dissolved oxygen, soluble compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen, pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and other matters. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the level of wastewater pollution discharged from Kosova coal-fired power plants and to determine the physical-chemical and biological characteristics. Samples of wastewater were collected at different locations before discharging into the Sitnica River. Organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, and biogenic compounds have been analyzed using potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods. Results have shown that wastewater was polluted by various organic and inorganic compounds and hazardous substances that exceeded standards for surface water have registered phenols and heavy metals and represent a high risk for water, soil public health.

    The Preparation Of Silicon And Aluminum Alkali Extracts From Fused Turkish Coal Fly Ashes
    M. Piskin1 ;M. Sarı Yılmaz1 ;
    1Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey;

    Large quantities of solid waste generated from households, offices, shops, markets, restaurants, public institutions, industrial installations, water works and sewage facilities, construction and demolition sites, and agricultural activities cause environmental problems such as groundwater contamination, atmospheric and water pollution, etc. When it is disposed in landfills. Fly ash is the by-product of the coal combustion process for energy generation and it remains a major problem in many parts of the world. The large amounts of fly ash are produced and its annual production of it has continued to increase. The disposal of fly ash may cause long-term adverse environmental effects. In this study, the silicon and aluminum in two different Turkish fly ashes (Afsin-Elbistan and Catalagzı) were activated by fusion with sodium hydroxide. The obtained leachates were analyzed for silicon and aluminum content by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In addition, the mineralogical and chemical properties of these fly ashes are compared.

    Treatment Of Hazardous Substances In Kosovo
    B. Cena1 ;
    1University Of Pristina, Pristina, Kosovo;

    The issue of identifying and handling hazardous substances in Kosovo needs undoubtedly a serious approach and firm commitment in this regard. Hazardous substances management process at the national level is a challenge that should not fail. The main purpose of this research paper is not to promote the interest of all government structures, different companies, different organizations and the wide public to the identification and handling of hazardous substances; This is a separate priority of our state. This is best confirmed by the fact that almost a third of the form or questionnaire to the integration process in the Europian Union (EU) provide environmental protection or something that EU countries have arranged an excellent menu, regulated by laws and stricter sanctions for those who do not comply with the applicable criteria. We cannot say that Kosovo has no laws to address this phenomenon, but the dynamics of the implementation of these laws are not close to those of the EU. This paper contains mostly accurate research data, different mirrors, pictures and places with hazardous ingredients. Assessments to date in this area and the identification of almost all hazardous substances nationwide are a solid base for the implementation of their overall treatment program. Theoretical and practical importance of this topic certainly has its value in the recognition of this phenomenon that can be called as one of the challenges we will face as a country in the future.

    Urban And Rural Wastes In Kosovo As A Challenge Which Needs Urgent Treatment With High Tech And Zero Waste Technology
    A. Vitaku1 ;
    1University Of Prishtina, Mitrovica, Kosovo;

    Kosovo, a New Country in South Eastern Europe, with a population about 2 Million, in a surface of 11.000 km2, generates Urban and Rural Wastes in a quantity of 270.000 t/y. Not all of these wastes in the tailing dumps, managed from Kosovo Landfill Management Company, were constructed according to the EU standards. After the 1999 war, Kosovo has had as a heritage of 100 M t of minerals and industrial wastes from these technologies, which has contents of heavy toxic metals. The wastes are dangerous for environmental pollution - for air pollution, water pollution and earth pollution and there is also a huge risk for population health. KLMC, as a Central Company, tries to do waste treatment as a needed process to achieve and to reduce the quantity of wastes in process of generation before depositing, energy efficiency, reusing and recycling wastes, minimizing the risk for environment population health. These aims will be realized by Construction of Center for Recycling, which will do preparation and separation of wastes according to the types of wastes with equipment - mobile technology - for separation of wastes, which can be reused and treated with high tech technology with performance Zero Waste Technology, without using chemicals and developing in high temperature.

    Use Of A Nickel Slag As Underground Mine Backfill Operations
    P. Zhang1 ;
    1Uk, San Franciso, United States;

    The process of making low-grade concrete with granulated slag particles from a nickel smelter is studied. The concrete appraised in the research is comprised of coarse slag (+0.074 mm), sand (tailings), fine slag (-0.074 mm), cement and water. It is found that the granulated slag is partly as the aggregate substitute and partly as the cementing agent to form blended cements with the regular cement in the concrete and this concrete has proven to be applicable to mine backfilling. The cementing effect of the granulated nickel slag is increased with the increase of its specific surface area pulverized during the concrete preparation, and the strength of concrete is dominated by the fineness and dosage of the finely granulated slag and the usage of additives such as CaO, CaSO4 and CaCl2. Results of experimental tests are presented. Grinding the nickel slag finely enough with more specific surface area and using adequate activator are the necessary measures to achieve high reactivity for such nickel slag with low content of alkaline oxide and high content of SiO2. The granulated nickel slag particles, made of low-grade concrete from in-place materials, not only meet required gradation specifications but also contribute to excellent stability and load bearing capacity for underground mine backfilling.

    Use Of Waste Nanoparticles Silver In Ha Coatings Applied By Aps To Medical Applications
    V. Orozco1 ;C. Martínez2 ;J. Romero3 ;A. Ledezma3 ;C. Rodriguez2 ;D. Lozoya4 ;R. Gómez4 ;A. Martínez1 ;
    1Cimav, Chihuahua, Mexico; 2Uacj, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; 3Ciqa, Saltillo, Mexico; 4Itch, Chihuahua, Mexico;

    The use of waste mining products are one of the main problems of this industry. In the present work, the use of waste nanoparticles silver to be employed in medical applications is shown. Nowadays, one of the main problems presented in prosthesis is infection during the first days after being implanted, because most of the studies have been focused on the development of solutions for this inconvenience. Hydroxyapatite (HA) with silver micro-particles coating is one of the alternatives; However, this alternative has not been fully effective. It has been demonstrated that the use of particles in the nanoscale modifies its properties in a significant way. In this paper, HA-0, 1, 3, 5% silver nanoparticles (nAg) coating with atmospheric plasma spray (APS) in a Praxair (SG100) equipment on a Ti6Al4V substrate is developed. The coating application parameters used by APS were: Energy (15 kW), projection velocity (2.0 lb/h) with He (primary gas) and Ar (secondary gas). It was observed, through scanning electron microscope (SEM), that the HA/nAg coating showed islands of Ag nanoparticles homogeneously distributed all over the surface. In cross section analysis, the coating showed an excellent densification. Based on ASTM C633 standard, the coating adherence was determined, showing that if the nAg percentage increases, so it does the adherence, having a 29, 32, 37 and 39 MPa in adherence for the HA coating with 0, 1, 3 and 5% nAg, respectively. In addition, electrochemical tests were conducted (cyclic polarization curves), exposing the HA/nAg coating to a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution at room temperature, showing an opposite behavior than it was observed in the adherence tests, because as it increased the nAg percentage, it could be seen an increment in the corrosion kinetics. This was originated due an oxidation process attributed to the presence of nAg in the coating. The corrosion kinetics values were: 1,88, 5.40, 6.29 and 9.01e-5 A/cm2 (0, 1, 3 and 5% nAg, respectively).

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