Yazawa International Symposium
Metallurgical and Materials Processing Principles and Technologies 
Vol. 1: Materials Processing Fundamentals and New Technologies

Edited by: Florian Kongoli, Kimio Itagaki, Chikabumi Yamauchi  and Hong Yong Sohn


Biography of Professor Yazawa [pp. v-viii]
Foreword [pp. ix-x]
Editors' Biographies [pp. xi-xii]
Organizing Committee [pp. xiii--xiv]
Session Chairpersons [pp. xv-xvi]
Sponsors [pp. xvii-xviii]

This international symposium is organized to honor the very distinguished work and lifetime achievements of Prof. Akira Yazawa in Metallurgical and Materials Processing. Prof. Yazawa is renowned for his impact in extractive metallurgy of copper as well as in that of Zn, Pb, Ni, Sn, Sb, Au, Hg and Cd. His over 300 publications have dealt with a variety of subjects such as slag, alloys, matte, speiss, aqueous solutions, alcohols, algae etc. This symposium reflects this rich and colorful activity and cover simultaneously the physicochemical fundamentals of metallurgical and materials processing, their industrial applications as well as the development of new and improved technologies in non-ferrous, ferrous, aqueous, electrochemical materials processing and in materials-related environmental sciences. 

The symposium drew an overwhelming response from the international professional community. The 262 abstracts received from all over the world made this symposium the biggest ever held in its class. Papers were sent by nearly 520 authors representing the following 37 countries in all continents: Asia (Japan, China, Korea, Kazakhstan, Israel, Singapore, Thailand, India); America (USA, Canada, Chile, Brazil, Mexico, Peru); Europe (Russia, Finland, The Netherlands, Austria, England, Turkey, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Belgium, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Poland, Hungary, Germany, Norway, Albania, Romania, Slovenia, Yugoslavia); Australia and Africa (South Africa, Egypt). (The order is according to the number of the papers and/or authors for each continent and country). Two thirds of the papers are from Japan, USA, Canada, Chile and China. This record number of papers left us, the organizing committee, no option but to prepare three separate volumes: Volume 1: Materials Processing Fundamentals and New Technologies; Volume 2: High Temperature Metal Production and Volume 3: Aqueous and Electrochemical Processing. However it should be noted that there is not a clear-cut classification. Some papers related to the technological advances, modeling or fundamentals are included in the second and the third volume since they are closely related to respective subjects. We believe that these volumes will be a useful contribution to the professional community worldwide.

The symposium was cosponsored by a record number of 28 Professional Societies and Independent Publishers all over the world as well as 10 Corporate Cosponsors

We would like to express our appreciation to all TMS staff for their support and dedication. 

One of the co-chairs and editors, Florian Kongoli, would like to thank his wife Megan Dibra for graciously supporting him at a time when she was herself extremely busy practicing as a lawyer for a judge of the Quebec Court of Appeal. He also want to thank his three-year old son, Davis, for forgiving him for the time that daddy was not staying with him as usual and his grand mother Madam Dibra for the help given during the extra hours of work dedicated to this symposium and proceedings.



Application Of Sodium Carbonate Slag To Copper Refining [pp. 3-23]
C. Yamauchi

Impurity Capacities In Metallurgical Slags [pp. 25-48]
R.G. Reddy


Thermodynamics And Fluid-Solid Reaction Kinetics: Effects On The Rate And Activation Energy (Keynote) [pp. 51-62]
H.Y. Sohn

Kinetics Of Gaseous Reduction Of Manganese Ores [pp. 63-73]
R.J. Ishak and T. Lindstad

Reaction Kinetics Of Some Carbonaceous Materials With Carbon Dioxid [pp. 75-83]
M. Kawakami, T. Ohyabu, T. Takenaka and S. Yokoyama

Vapor Pressure Measurements For The FeCl2-ZnCl2 System By The Transpiration Method [pp. 85-93]
S.H. Son and F. Tsukihashi

The Kinetics Of The Oxidation Of Zinc Vapour By Carbon Dioxide And Water Vapour On Quartz, Zinc Oxide, Sinter And Coke Substrates (Invited) [pp. 95-105]
A.Cox and D.J. Fray

Effect Of P2O5 Or Na2O Addition On The Reaction Rate Of CO2 Dissociation With FexO Containing Molten Oxides [pp. 107-116]
H. Matsuura and F. Tsukihashi


Solute Interactions With Dissolved Oxygen In Molten Copper Systems (Keynote) [pp. 119-130]
R. Aune, P.Fredriksson and S. Seetharaman

Desulfurization Kinetics Of Molten Copper Matte By Gas Bubbling [pp. 131-146]
H.-S. Sohn, Y. Fukunaka and T. Oishi

Phase Equilibria And Thermodynamics In The Ag – Pb – S Ternary System [pp. 147-158]
R.H. Eric and H. Ozok

Activities Of Cu2S-FeS System Calculated From The Data Of Cu2S-FeS-Sb2S3 System [pp. 159-166]
G. Matei, Y. Takasaki, K. Itagaki and K. Koike

High Temperature Thermodymanic Studies On Sulfide Systems Using The Dew Point Technique (Invited) [pp. 167-180]
R H. Eric

Thermodynamic Properties Of Copper-Nickel Mattes [pp. 181-186]
A.V. Tarasov, V.M. Paretsky and L.Sh. Tsemekhman

Determination Of The Degree Of Oxidation Of Molten Copper Using An Electrochemical Cell [pp. 187-196]
J. A. Vázquez M., A. Romero S., M.A. García, S. González L. and J. Araujo O.


Slags And Fluxes In Pyrometallurgical Processes (Keynote) [pp. 199-210]
F. Kongoli

Phase Diagram Of CaO-FeO-Cu2O Slag Under Copper Saturation [pp. 211-225]
Y. Takeda

Some Aspects Of Calcium Ferrite Slags (Invited) [pp. 227-244]
S. Jahanshahi and S. Sun

A Counter-Flow Batch Process For Refining Copper Using Sodium Carbonate Slag [pp. 245-255]
H. Hashimoto, M. Tanahashi, H. Y. Sohn, C. Yamauchi and K. Takeda

Dissolution Mechanism And Solubility Of Chlorine In The Oxide Melts (Invited) [pp. 257-267]
K. Morita, T. Hirosumi, and M. Miwa

Selection Of Slag Composition And Structure For Autogenous Smelting Process To Produce White Metal Using The Basic Developments Of Prof. A. Yazawa (Invited) [pp. 269-275]
V.M. Paretsky and A.V.Tarasov

Ferrous Calcium Silicate Slags In Direct-To- Blister Flash Smelting (Invited) [pp. 277-290]
A. Vartiainen, I. V. Kojo, and C. Acuña R.


Distribution Of Minor Elements In Sulfide Smelting (Keynote) [pp. 293-306]
K. Itagaki

Thermodynamic Evaluation Of Arsenic And Antimony On The Bessemer Matte And Calcium Ferrite Slag [pp. 307-317]
J.M. Font, M. Hino and K. Itagaki

Thermodynamics Of PbO, ZnO And CuO0.5 In CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 Melts [pp. 319-327]
T. Ishikawa, K. Matsuzaki, T. Tsukada and K. Ito

Distribution Of Minor Elements Between Ni-S Melt And Al2O3-CaO-MgO Slag At 1873 K [pp. 329-340]
H. Henao, M. Hino and K. Itagaki

Thermodynamic Evaluation Of Copper Loss In Slag Equilibrated With Matte (Keynote) [pp. 341-357]
Y. Takeda

Copper Losses In Copper Smelting Slags (Invited) [pp. 359-373]
I. Imris

Distribution Behavior Of Arsenic, Antimony And Bismuth In The Smelting Stage Of The Mitsubishi Process [pp. 375-381]
S. Surapunt and N. Hasegawa

The Influence Of Reverb Slag Composition on Copper Losses [pp. 383-392]
N. Mitevska and Z.D. Zivkovic


Zinc-A Possible Component In Lead-Free Solders (Keynote) [pp. 395-403]
A. Mikula

Activity Measurement Of The Constituents In Molten Sn-Ag-In And Sn-Zn-Mg Ternary Lead Free Solder Alloys By Mass Spectrometry [pp. 405-415]
T. Miki, N. Ogawa, T. Nagasaka and M. Hino

Effect Of Additives On The Viscosity Of Molten Nickel Base Alloys [pp. 417-423]
Y. Sato, K. Sugisawa, D. Aoki, M. Hoshi, J.-Il Kim and T. Yamamura

Activities Of Bi And In In The Bi-In Liquid Alloy Measured By Using Vacuum-Sealed Quartz Cell/Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer Combination (Invited) [pp. 425-439]
S. Nakazawa, M. Sunada, T. Azakami and T. Nagasaka

Thermodynamic Properties Of Several Ternary Zinc Alloys [pp. 441-449]
S. Knott and A. Mikula


Recent Progress In Thermal Diffusivity Measurement Of Molten Oxides By The Laser Flash Method [pp. 453-462]
H. Ohta, H. Shibata and Y. Waseda

Two Methods For The Continuous Measurement Of Slag Viscosity From The Glassy To The Liquid States [pp. 463-473]
Y. Shiraishi and Y. Sakurai

Advanced Image Analysis Of Molten Slag For Process Control [pp. 475-483]
Subagyo and G.A. Brooks

Impurity Removal From Carbon Saturated Liquid Iron Using Lead Solvent [pp. 485-492]
K. Yamaguchi and Y. Takeda

The Criteria Of Hydrogen And Oxygen Potentials In Copper Melt For Making A Sound Casting Of Bar And Rod – The Guide Of The Effective Use Of An Electrochemical Gas Monitoring System [pp. 493-501]
N. Fukatsu, N. Kurita and D. Yamamoto

Viscosities Of FeNO-MgO-SiO2 And FeNO-MgO-CaO-SiO2 Slags [pp. 503-508]
D. Xi, G. Xueping and Z. Chuanfu

Measurement Of The Oxygen Potential Of Non-Ferrous Slags With An Ex-Situ Electrochemical Device [pp. 509-515]
N. Moelans, B. Coletti, J. Plessers, M. Straetemans, B. Blanpain and P. Wollants


Production Of Elemental Sulphur From Non-Ferrous Smelter Gas (Keynote) [pp. 519-526]
T. Okura

Physical Chemistry Of Reactive Ball Milling (Invited) [pp. 527-538]
G.A. Brooks and N.B. Patel

Investigations In Different Reducing Agents For The Pyro-Metallurgical Treatment Of Steel Mill Dusts [pp. 539-549]
H. Antrekowitsch, J. Antrekowitsch and S. Gelder

The Behavior Of Arsenopyrite In The Process Of Roasting [pp. 551-561]

Some Challenges In The Nitride Metallurgy: Synthesis Of Complex Nitrides, Phase Equilibria And Chemical Potential Measurements (Invited) [pp. 563-577]
T.H. Okabe, O. Ishiyama, H. Yamane, K. T. Jacob and Y. Waseda

Application Of Molten Salts In Metals Production (Keynote) [pp. 579-593]
B. Mishra

Thermogravimetric Study Of The Sulfurization Of TiO2 Using CS2 [pp. 595-601]
J. Cuya, N. Sato, K. Yamamoto and A. Muramatsu

Solar Thermal Extraction Of Copper From Sulfides [pp. 603-612]
L. Winkel, C. Guesdon and M. Sturzenegger

Removal Of Boron From Metallurgical-Grade Silicon By Applying CaO-Based Flux Treatment [pp. 613-624]
M. Tanahashi, H. Nakahigashi, K. Takeda and C. Yamauchi

Sulfur And Oxygen Partial Pressure Ratios Prediction In Copper Flash Smelting Plants Using Reddy-Blander Model [pp. 625-632]
A. Derin and R.G. Reddy

Roasting Mechanisms Of Impure Zinc Concentrates In Fluidized Beds (Invited) [pp. 633-646]
M.-L. Metsärinta, P. Taskinen, S. Jyrkönen, J. Nyberg and A. Rytioja

The Chemistry Of Fuming Zinc From Oxide Slags Using Coke (Keynote) [pp. 647-657]
D.G.C. Robertson, D.K. Panda and A.C. Deneys

Effect Of Ultrasonic Wave Irradiation On The Electrical Conductivity Of Pure And Sodium Doped Sulfur Melts [pp. 659-666]
N. Sato, R. Michalski, T. Fujino and Y. Waseda

Mathematical Modeling Of Phase Interaction Taking Place During Fusion Welding Processes (Invited) [pp. 667-680]
M. Zinigrad , V. Mazurovsky and A. Zinigrad

A Novel Green Technique For The Recovery Of Value-Nonferrous Metal Compounds From Molten Slags [pp. 681-692]
Z. Sui, L. Zhang, T. Lou, G. Li and H. Chen

Progress And Problems In The Modeling Of Non-Ferrous Processes (Keynote) [pp. 693-707]
A.E. Morris

Thermodynamic Study On Recovery Of Lead And Antimony From A Used Lead-Battery [pp. 709-720]
S. Itoh, A. Kikuchi and M. Hino

Direct Production Of Metallic Zinc From Eaf Dust (Invited) [pp. 721-729]
T. Azakami, H. Sugimoto and S. Kojima

Development Of New Copper Continuous Converter [pp. 731-743]
Y. Ojima, Y. Kondo, K. Kawanaka, K. Maeba and K. Yamamoto

Laboratory One-Step Bath Smelting Of Nickel Concentrate To A Low Iron Matte (Invited) [pp. 745-753]
N. J. Tannyan and T.A. Utigard

Direct Sulfation Of Nickel Laterite Ores Using Sulfur Dioxide Rich Gases [pp. 755-769]
D. Papazoglou and W.J. Rankin


A Basic Study On The Effective Utilization Of Chromium-Containing Steel Slag (Invited) [pp. 773-785]
E. Shibata and T. Nakamura

Overall Reaction Kinetics Of Coal Injection Into Slags (Invited) [pp. 787-800]
F.-Z. Ji, M. Barati, K. Coley and G.A. Irons

Semi-Stochastic Multi-Objective Optimization Of Chemical Composition Of High Temperature Austenitic Steels For Desired Mechanical Properties [pp. 801-814]
G.S. Dulikravich, I.N. Egorov, V.K. Sikka, G. Muralidharan

Microscopic Observation Of Iron Carburization By Coal Under The Presence Of Liquid Slag [pp. 815-824]
K-i. Ohno, T. Nagasaka and M. Hino

Fundamental Investigation Of Basic Mechanisms Of Carbon Dissolution In Molten Iron (Invited) [pp. 825-840]
V. Sahajwalla and R. Khanna

Dissolution Of Alumina Particles In CaO-Based Fluxes (Invited) [pp. 841-850]
W.D. Cho and P. Fan

The Effect Of MgO And Al2O3 Additions On The Liquidus Of The CaO-SiO2-FeOx System At Various Partial Pressure Of Oxygen [pp. 851-860]
F. Tsukihashi and H. Kimura

Simulation On The Formation, Dripping And Penetration Behavior Of Primary Oxide Melt In The Pyrometallurgical Process (Invited) [pp. 861-880]
M. Hino, A. Kumano, K. Shimizuno and T. Nagasaka

New Reactor Concepts For Direct Coal-Based Continuous Steelmaking (Invited) [pp. 881-900]
N.A. Warner

Kinetics And Morphological Studies Of A Carbon Composite Briquette Aiming The Emergent Ironmaking Technologies [pp. 901-916]
J.C. D’Abreu, J.H. Noldin Jr., K. de M. Martins

Phase Relations During Sintering Of Iron Ore And Fluxing Effect Of Minor Components [pp. 917-925]
F. Kongoli, I. McBow and A. Yazawa

Thermodynamics Of Removal Of Tramp Elements From Steel Scrap (Invited) [pp. 927-936]
F. Tsukihashi

Thermodynamics Of Mold Powder (Invited) [pp. 937-951]
H. Fukuyama, T. Watanabe, H. Takahashi, H. Tabata, T. Oshima and K. Nagata

Influence Of Reduction-Carburization Conditions On The Rate Of Iron Carbide Formation [pp. 953-963]
A.A. El-Geassy, M.I. Nasr and M.B. Seddik

Interfacial Area In Pyrometallurgical Reactor Design [pp. 965-974]
G.A. Brooks and Subagyo


Thermal Plasma Treatment Of Metal And Material Wastes (Keynote) [pp. 977-990]
P.R. Taylor, W. Wang and E.E. Vidal

Modeling Of Arsenic Distribution Between Slags And Copper Mattes Or Liquid Copper [pp. 991-1003]
J.M. Font and R.G. Reddy

Pyrometallurgical Reactors -Closers Of The Recycling Material Cycle- (Invited) [pp. 1005-1017]
M.A. Reuter, J.J. Eksteen and A. van Schaik

Thermodynamics Of Iron Reduction From Metallurgical Residues [pp. 1019-1029]
I. Imris, A. Klenovcanova and M. Imris

Modeling Of Transport And Chemical Rate Phenomena In Flash Combustion Of Municipal Solid Wastes (Invited) [pp. 1031-1052]
N.J. Themelis and Y.H. Kim

Combustion Modeling Of Hazardous Waste Incineration [pp. 1053-1067]
Y. Yang, M. Pijnenborg, M.A. Reuter, J. Verwoerd

The Decomposition Mechanism Of Precursor 2,4,5- Trichlrorophenol For 2,3,7,8-Tcdd Using Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Method Calculation [pp. 1069-1076]
T. Araki, M. Hirota and A. Fuwa

Scrap Combination For Recycling Of Valuable Metals: Direct Extraction And Recovery Of Neodymium Metal From Magnet Scraps [pp. 1079-1091]
T.H. Okabe, O. Takeda, K. Fukuda and Y. Umetsu

Technology Development For Making Harmless The Incinerator Fly Ash And Recycling It As Construction Aggregate By Roasting [pp. 1093-1101]
M. Matsuno, K. Tomoda and J-i. Takahashi

Disposal Treatment Of Alternative CFC Gas(C2H2F4) Using Chemical Reaction With Metal Compounds [pp. 1103-1109]
H. Yamamoto, A. Kushida, N. Murayama and J. Shibata

Behaviour Of Thallium During Lead Smelting (Invited) [pp. 1111-1122]
D.R. Swinbourne, S. Yan and A. Yazawa

Modeling And Control Of Dioxin Formation During Iron Ore Sintering [pp. 1123-1137]
P. Tan and D. Neuschütz

Development Of A Closed Recycling Process For Low Grade Scrap Of Al-Based Composite Materials (Invited) [pp. 1139-1145]
H. Sano, S-i. Kato, T. Motomura and T. Fujisawa


Fabrication Of Blue Light-Emitting Diodes Using GaN-Based Multiple Quantum Wells Grown By Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (Invited) [pp. 1149-1156]
R.-J. Choi, H.J. Park, H.J. Lee and Y.-B. Hahn

Sintering Of Pb{Zr,Ti,(Mg1/3Nb 2/3)}O3 Ceramics By Spark Plasma Sintering And Their Compositional Distribution [pp. 1157-1166]
K. Kakegawa, S. Sawahara and N. Uekawa

Mg Alloy Composite Materials With Solid-State Synthesized Mg2Si Dispersions [pp. 1167-1172]
K. Kondoh, W. Du and R. Tsuzuki

Reaction Of Sn-Containing Solders With Nickel Based Under Bump Metallizations [pp. 1173-1183]
G. Qi, M. He and Z. Chen

Effect Of Intense Magnetic Field On CdTe Electro-Deposition (Invited) [pp. 1185-1190]
T. Kozuka, Y. Sugita and M. Kawahara

Ceramic-Metal Composites Obtained By Reactive Pressureless Counterflow Infiltration/Penetration (RPCI) Of A Ceramic Substrate With Two Different Metallic Infiltrants (Invited) [pp. 1191-1205]
V. Kevorkijan

Preparation Of Vanadium-Doped SnO2 Nanocrystallites [pp. 1207-1212]
H. Yang, W. Ao, C. Wang and G. Qiu

Two-Way Shape Memory Effect of Ferromagnetic Ni-Mn-Ga Sputter-Deposited Films [pp. 1213-1226]
M. Ohtsuka, M. Matsumoto and K. Itagaki

Fabrication Of BaNd2Ti4O12/Bi4Ti3O12/BaNd2Ti4O12 Laminated Ceramics By Spark Plasma Sintering [pp. 1227-1233]
Y.J. Wu, N. Uekawa and K. Kakegawa

Preparation Of Infrared Materials From Ultrafine Quartz Powder [pp. 1235-1239]
H. Yang, J. Chao and G. Qiu

Deposition Of Multilayered Titanium Thin Film By ND:YAG Laser Ablation [pp. 1241-1246]
T. Nakamura, H. Takahashi, K. Yamamoto, N. Sato, A. Muramatsu and E. Matsubara


Modelling Of Melting Behaviour Of Aluminum Metal In Molten Salt And Metal Bath [pp. 1249-1258]
B. Zhou, Y. Yang and M.A. Reuter

Original Industrial Application Of Two Numerical Models In Concasting Technology [pp. 1259-1267]
J. Dobrovska, V. Dobrovska, J. Stetina, F. Kavicka, K. Stransky, P. Ramik and B. Velicka

Energy Absorption Properties Of Foaming Aluminium [pp. 1269-1273]
Y.H. Liu, G.C. Yao and X.M. Zhang

Formation And Magnetic Susceptibility Of Compounds Containing Iron And Manganese In Aluminum Melts [pp. 1275-1280]
G.C. Yao, Y.H. Liu, L. Zhang and L. L. Wu

Separation Of Iron-Rich Impurity Particles From Molten Aluminum By Induced-Alternating Magnetic Field [pp. 1281-1285]
G.C. Yao, L. Zhang and L.L. Wu

Defect Formation And Mechanism Of ZA Alloy Made In Continuous Casting By Heated Mold [pp. 1287-1299]
M. Ying, H. Yuan, Y. Feng-yun, L. Hong-jun


Dowa Mining Co., Ltd. (Japan) [p. 1303]

Flogen Technologies Inc.(Canada) [p. 1304]

Furukawa Co., Ltd.(Japan) [p. 1305]

Korea Zinc Co. Ltd.(South Korea) [p. 1306]

Mitsubishi Materials Corp.(Japan) [p. 1307]

Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd.(Japan) [p. 1308]

Outokumpu Oyj (Finland) [p. 1309]

Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. (Japan) [p. 1310]

Author Index [pp. 1311-1314]