Yazawa International Symposium
Metallurgical and Materials Processing Principles and Technologies 
Vol. 2: High-Temperature Metal Production
Edited by: Florian Kongoli, Kimio Itagaki, Chikabumi Yamauchi  and Hong Yong Sohn


Biography of Professor Yazawa [pp. v-viii]
Foreword [pp. ix-x]
Editors' Biographies [pp. xi-xii]
Organizing Committee [pp. xiii--xiv]
Session Chairpersons [pp. xv-xvi]
Sponsors [pp. xvii-xviii]

This international symposium is organized to honor the very distinguished work and lifetime achievements of Prof. Akira Yazawa in Metallurgical and Materials Processing. Prof. Yazawa is renowned for his impact in extractive metallurgy of copper as well as in that of Zn, Pb, Ni, Sn, Sb, Au, Hg and Cd. His over 300 publications have dealt with a variety of subjects such as slag, alloys, matte, speiss, aqueous solutions, alcohols, algae etc. This symposium reflects this rich and colorful activity and cover simultaneously the physicochemical fundamentals of metallurgical and materials processing, their industrial applications as well as the development of new and improved technologies in non-ferrous, ferrous, aqueous, electrochemical materials processing and in materials-related environmental sciences. 

The symposium drew an overwhelming response from the international professional community. The 262 abstracts received from all over the world made this symposium the biggest ever held in its class. Papers were sent by nearly 520 authors representing the following 37 countries in all continents: Asia (Japan, China, Korea, Kazakhstan, Israel, Singapore, Thailand, India); America (USA, Canada, Chile, Brazil, Mexico, Peru); Europe (Russia, Finland, The Netherlands, Austria, England, Turkey, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Belgium, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Poland, Hungary, Germany, Norway, Albania, Romania, Slovenia, Yugoslavia); Australia and Africa (South Africa, Egypt). (The order is according to the number of the papers and/or authors for each continent and country). Two thirds of the papers are from Japan, USA, Canada, Chile and China. This record number of papers left us, the organizing committee, no option but to prepare three separate volumes: Volume 1: Materials Processing Fundamentals and New Technologies; Volume 2: High Temperature Metal Production and Volume 3: Aqueous and Electrochemical Processing. However it should be noted that there is not a clear-cut classification. Some papers related to the technological advances, modeling or fundamentals are included in the second and the third volume since they are closely related to respective subjects. We believe that these volumes will be a useful contribution to the professional community worldwide.

The symposium was cosponsored by a record number of 28 Professional Societies and Independent Publishers all over the world as well as 10 Corporate Cosponsors

We would like to express our appreciation to all TMS staff for their support and dedication. 

One of the co-chairs and editors, Florian Kongoli, would like to thank his wife Megan Dibra for graciously supporting him at a time when she was herself extremely busy practicing as a lawyer for a judge of the Quebec Court of Appeal. He also want to thank his three-year old son, Davis, for forgiving him for the time that daddy was not staying with him as usual and his grand mother Madam Dibra for the help given during the extra hours of work dedicated to this symposium and proceedings.



Contribution Of Copper Smelting Technology To Sustainable Development Of Human Society [pp. 3-14]
A. Nishikawa

Non-Ferrous Metals – The Challenges In Metal Production And Technology Transfer [pp. 15-23]
T. Järvinen

The Role Of Lead Smelting At Korea Zinc [pp. 25-39]
C.-Y. Choi


Modern Applied Technologies For Primary Lead Smelting At The Beginning Of The 21st Century (Keynote) [pp. 43-62]
A. Siegmund

Simulation Of Imperial Smelting Furnace Operation Using A Mathematical Model (Invited) [pp. 63-77]
K. Matsuzaki, F. Tanno and A. Fuwa

The Nature Of Accretion Formation During Roasting Of Zinc Concentrates In Fluidized Bed Furnace [pp. 79-89]
N.M. Komkov and V.A. Luganov

The Experience Of Lead Direct Smelting In Korea Zinc’s Onsan Refinery (Keynote) [pp. 91-98]
Y.H. Lee and Y.M. Park

Installation Of Arsenic Removal In The Hematite Process [pp. 99-109]
H. Masuda, S. Sato, Y. Kudo and Y. Shibachi


An Overview Of The Metallurgy Of Nickel-Copper Matte Converting (Keynote) [pp. 113-129]
A.E.M. Warner and C.M. Díaz

Miniplant Oxygen Flash Smelting Of Bulk Copper-Nickel Sulfide Concentrate: The Effect Of Coke Addition On Process Metallurgy [pp. 131-141]
J. Liu, A.E.M. Warner, T.A. Utigard, C.M. Díaz and M. Fezzani

The Operation Of The Inco Flash Furnace Uptake: Combustion Of H2S And Formation Of Uptake Buildup [pp. 143-152]
J. Liu, A.E.M. Warner, G. Osborne, D. Cooke and R. Slayer

Nickel And Copper Behavior During Autogenous Smelting Of Copper Nickel-Containing Concentrate After High-Grade Matte Flotation [pp. 153-159]
L.Sh. Tsemekhman, L.B. Tsymbulov, A.G. Ryabko and M.S. Fyodorov

An Investigation On The High–Mg-Content Slag In Jinchuan Nickel Flash Smelting Furnace [pp. 161-165]
W. Zhi and W. Wei

Mechanisms Of The Cleaning Of Cu-Ni-Co-Containing Slags By Oxidizing-Reduction Gas Mixtures (Invited) [pp. 167-175]
L.Sh. Tsemekhman, A.G. Ryabko, L.B. Tsymbulov, M.V. Knyazev, V.B. Fomichev, A.A. Ryumin and L.A. Pavlinova


Recent Advances In Modern Continuous Converting (Keynote) [pp. 179-187]
M. Goto and M. Hayashi

New Approach For The Optimization Of Copper Concentrates Flash Combustion By The Control Of Blends (Invited) [pp. 189-198]
R. Parra, R. Parada and M. Rodríguez

Effect Of Magnetic Field On The Rate Of Slag Reduction In An Electric Furnace [pp. 199-209]
V. Montenegro, T. Fujisawa, A. Warczok and G. Riveros

Ausmelt Technology, Flexible, Low Cost Technology For Copper Production In The 21st Century (Invited) [pp. 211-226]
i>J. Sofra and R. Matusewicz

Quantification Of The Liquidus Surface Of “Lime Ferrite” Slags At Several Oxygen Potentials [pp. 227-238]
F. Kongoli, I. McBow and A. Yazawa

The Chilean Copper Metallurgical Industry: An Update (Invited) [pp. 239-252]
A. Valenzuela, J. Palacios, D. Cordero and M. Sánchez


Future Of Copper Converting Process (Keynote) [pp. 255-264]
Y. Ojima

Efficiency Of Porous Plugs In Fire Refining Of Crude Copper [pp. 265-279]
C. Acuna and M. Sherrington

The Isasmelt Process—An Example Of Successful Industrial R&D (Invited) [pp. 281-291]
P. Arthur, B. Butler, J. Edwards, C. Fountain, S. Hunt and J. Tuppurainen

Development Of Sumitomo Premixed Concentrate Burner For Copper Flash Smelting [pp. 293-304]
Y. Hattori, Y. Mori, Y. Kondo, Y. Sasaki, T. Okubo and K. Baba

Effect Of The Oxygen Potential On The Viscosity Of Copper Smelting Slags [pp. 305-316]
F. Kongoli, I. McBow and S. Llubani

Two Copper Smelting Processes At Onsan (Invited) [pp. 317-326]
Y.-C. Kang and I.-H. Song

High Intensive Operation Of Flash Smelting Furnace At Saganoseki Smelter & Refinery [pp. 327-335]
M. Ogasawara, T. Kamegai and M. Maeda

The Copper Loss In Slag Of Flash Smelting Furnace In Tamano Smelter [pp. 337-347]
T. Maruyama, N. Furui, M. Hamamoto and T. Sunamoto


Effect Of Oxygen Enrichment On The Teniente Converter Productivity At The Ilo Smelter, Perú [pp. 351-358]
J. Bengoa, J. Palacios and M. Sanchez

Oxidation Of Copper At Different Temperatures [pp. 359-369]
G. Plascencia and T. Utigard

Yunnan Copper Corporation’s New Smelter China’s First Isasmelt [pp. 371-384]
Y. Li and P. Arthur

Modelling Of Chalcocite Concentrate Flash Smelting [pp. 385-399]
Z. Miczkowski, J. Czernecki and Z. Smieszek

Copper Converting Versus Steel Converting – A Critical Comparison (Invited) [pp. 401-415]
L. Holappa and H. Jalkanen

Effect Of Electric And Magnetic Fields On The Metallic Inclusions In A Liquid Slag [pp. 417-429]
A. Warczok and G. Riveros

Factors Affecting The Rate Of Copper Reduction During Copper Refining [pp. 431-444]
G. Riveros, A. Warczok, L. Voisin and T. Marin


Application Of The Porous Plug System In The Anode Furnace At Onsan Smelter [pp. 447-457]
S.-S. Lee, B.-S. Kim and S.-R. Choi

Behavior Of Silver In The Electric Furnace For Copper Dross Treatment [pp. 459-469]
T. Yasugi and K. Yamazaki

A Process Designed For The Ancient Copper Smelting Slags (Invited) [pp. 471-482]
B. Derin, F.Ç. Sahin, O. Yücel, E. Açma and O. Addemir

Present And Future Of Caletones Smelter [pp. 483-494]
G.H. Achurra, P.B. Chacana, J.D. Büchi and F.A. Condore

Thermodynamic Fundamentals Of Calcium Ferrite Slag And Their Application To Mitsubishi Continuous Copper Converter (Invited) [pp. 495-508]
F. Tanaka, O. Iida and Y. Takeda

Control Of Magnetite Behavior In The Mitsubishi Process At Naoshima [pp. 509-519]
N. Hasegawa and H. Sato

The Behavior Of Impurities At Kosaka Smelter [pp. 521-531]
K. Watanabe and S. Nakagawara


Metal Recycling And Waste Treatment (Keynote) [pp. 535-544]
Y. Maeda

Distribution Of Metal Values In Pyrometallurgical Recycling Of Copper From The Waste [pp. 545-556]
J. Hino and Y. Takeda

Environmental Policy And Continuous Improvement In Atlantic Copper (Invited) [pp. 557-573]
J. Contreras, A. Alonso, P. Hidalgo and M. Palacios

The Potential Of Several Plants For Phytoremediation Of Nickel Contaminated Soils And For Nickel Phytoextraction (Invited) [pp. 575-585]
A. Cullaj, A. Hasko and F. Kongoli

Treatment Of Aqueous Effluents For The Recovery And/Or Removal Of Metals In The Non-Ferrous Metals’ Industry-A Review (Invited) [pp. 587-603]
V. Ramachandran

A Dynamic LCA Model For Assessing The Impact Of Lead Free Solder [pp. 605-623]
E.V. Verhoef, M.A. Reuter and A. Scholte

Use Of Solid Hematite To Fix Arsenic Contained In A Gas Phase [pp. 625-642]
A. González, E. Balladares, R. Parra and M. Sanchez

Environmental Impact Assessment Of Imperial Smelting Process In China [pp. 643-660]
G. Xueyi, X. Songwen, L. Qihou, N. Zuoren, Z. Duomo and Y. Ryoichi


The Contribution Of Pyrometallurgy To Sustainable Development (Keynote) [pp. 663-677]
W.J. Rankin

Melt Atomisation – The Bridge From Pyro-To Hydro-Metallurgy [pp. 679-687]
J. J. Dunkley, D. Norval and B. Ludvigsson

Laboratory Research On Reducing-Matting Smelting Of Jamesonite Concentrate [pp. 689-697]
T. Chaobo, T. Motang, Y. Weiyi and P. Ji


Operational Improvements For RH-KTB Degasser Of Companhia Siderurgica De Tubarao (CST) Steel Plant Through A Physical Modeling Study (Invited) [pp. 701-713]
V. Seshadri, C.A. da Silva, I.A. da Silva, R.P. Tavares, E.M. de Castro Martins, F.D. da Silva, G.A.V. Filho and P.S.B. Lascosqui

Optimization Of The Injection Refining-Up Temperature Process (IR-UT) Of The Companhia Siderúrgica De Tubarão Steel Plant (CST) Using Physical Modeling [pp. 715-728]
C.A. da Silva, I.A. da Silva, V. Seshadri, C.M.G. da Silva, M. de P. Alves, E.C. Fracalossi Jr., C.A. Perim and C.D. Barão

Assessment Of The Performance Of The Tundish Of A Six Strand Continuous Casting Unit Of Companhia Siderurgica Belgo-Mineira (CSBM), Brazil Using Physical Modeling [pp. 729-739]
M.S.S. Silva, E.G. da Mota, E.C. Fracalossi Jr, C.A. da Silva, I.A. da Silva, J.G. da C. Neto and V. Seshadri

Software For Selection And Analysis Of Mould Fluxes For Continuous Casting Of Slabs [pp. 741-752]
V. Seshadri and R.P. Tavares

Modeling Of EAF Slag Chemistry For Optimal Slag Foaming And Refractory Service Life [pp. 753-766]
J.P. Bennett and K.-S. Kwong


Dowa Mining Co., Ltd. (Japan) [p. 769]

Flogen Technologies Inc.(Canada) [p. 770]

Furukawa Co., Ltd. (Japan) [p. 771]

Korea Zinc Co. Ltd. (South Korea) [p. 772]

Mitsubishi Materials Corp. (Japan) [p. 773]

Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd.(Japan) [p. 774]

Outokumpu Oyj (Finland) [p. 775]

Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd. (Japan) [p. 776]

Author Index [pp. 777-778]