2022-Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit
SIPS2022 Volume 10 Nolan Intl. Symp Laws & Their Applications

Editors:F. Kongoli, M. McNeil, Y. Hayakawa, M. Dibra.
Publisher:Flogen Star OUTREACH
Publication Year:2022
Pages:126 pages
ISBN:978-1-989820-52-0 (CD))
ISSN:2291-1227 (Metals and Materials Processing in a Clean Environment Series)
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    The Law and Governance in Golf Courses

    Edna Selloriquez Pana1;
    1, Manila, Philippines;
    Type of Paper: Plenary
    Id Paper: 496
    Topic: 61


    There are more than 32,000 golf courses worldwide, with a rate of development
    increasing annually, along with their adverse impacts on the environment. And for the
    last 20 years, the world has seen a considerable proliferation of golf courses in Asia owing
    to sustained economic growth in the region. Moreover, golf has become the preferred
    sport amongst Asians nowadays and many governments have adopted “golf tourism” as
    national policy to spur economic growth. The Philippines, for instance, boasts of seventyeight
    golf clubs compared with just 20 courses from two decades ago. Thailand has 222
    courses, Viet Nam is hurriedly catching up with twenty-eight and Singapore has eighteen
    golf clubs with twenty-six courses. These figures are increasing steadily at an average
    rate of two new courses being constructed annually.
    Most of these golf courses are considered “traditional” or conventional, because they
    pursue a particular mode of construction and management, i.e. prodigious use of
    chemicals, water, white sand or pebbles, and hybrid turf grasses - not only to ensure the
    playing quality of the surface but also aesthetically to enhance the greens and a
    substantial portion of the golf course (tees, fairways). Moreover, most courses are built
    either on pristine or un-spoilt lands, hilly plains and mountainous areas for breathtaking
    landscapes and challenging games. During the construction and landscaping stage, the
    earth-moving activities generally destroy topsoil, re-direct riverine and wild life habitats,
    as well as damage ecosystems. But mostly, golf courses have converted vast tracts of
    agricultural lands, particularly paddy fields, which bring trepidations about food
    security in the region.
    Significantly, the “traditional” or conventional method of construction and operation of golf
    courses is causing adverse environmental, health, social and economic impacts. Firstly,
    golf courses require vast tracks of land for the construction of complexes. These lands
    could either be agricultural, hilly or mountainous areas, reclaimed marine or coastal
    areas, or mostly state lands. Secondly, golf courses use large quantities of chemicals, which
    are highly toxic and can also bio-accumulate in organisms. Chemicals also pose risks to
    people exposed to them. Thus, there is a need to regulate the use of these chemicals
    (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides and coagulants). The problem is exacerbated
    in developing countries, where government policies encourage agro-chemical use as
    chemicals are seen as production enhancers – similarly, substantial chemical application
    has become the popular “culture” in turf grass management in golf courses.



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    Cite this article as:

    Pana E. (2022). The Law and Governance in Golf Courses. In F. Kongoli, M. McNeil, Y. Hayakawa, M. Dibra. (Eds.), Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit SIPS2022 Volume 10 Nolan Intl. Symp Laws & Their Applications (pp. 87-120). Montreal, Canada: FLOGEN Star Outreach