In Honor of Nobel Laureate Prof. Ferid Murad

Abstract Submission Open! About 500 abstracts submitted from about 60 countries

Featuring 9 Nobel Laureates and other Distinguished Guests

Abstract Submission

Alberto Carpinteri

Politecnico di Torino

Correlation Between Nano-mechanics Instabilities, Terahertz Phonons, And Sub-atomic Particle Emissions: Implications To Geophysics And Geochemistry
Horstemeyer International Symposium (7th Intl. symp. on Multiscale Material Mechanics & Sustainable Applications)

Back to Plenary Lectures »


TeraHertz phonons are produced in solids and fluids by mechanical instabilities at the nano-scale (fracture and cavitation). They present a frequency that is close to the resonance frequency of the atomic lattices and an energy that is close to that of thermal neutrons. A series of fracture experiments on natural rocks and the systematic monitoring of seismic events have demonstrated that TeraHertz phonons are able to induce fission reactions on medium-weight elements (in particular, iron and calcium) with neutron and/or alpha particle emissions. The same phenomenon appears to have occurred in several different situations and to explain puzzles related to the history of our planet, like the primordial carbon pollution (and correlated iron depletion) or the ocean formation (and correlated calcium depletion), as well as scientific mysteries, like the so-called cold fusion or the correct radio-carbon dating of organic materials. Very important applications to earthquake precursors, climate change, and energy production are likely to develop in the next future.
Three different forms of energy might be used as earthquake precursors. At the tectonic scale, Acoustic Emission (AE) prevails, as well as Electro-Magnetic Emission (EME) at the meso-scale, and Neutron Emission (NE) at the nano-scale. The three fracto-emissions tend to anticipate the next seismic event with an evident and chronologically ordered shifting: high frequencies and neutron emission about one week before, then lower frequencies and electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The experimental observations reveal a strong correlation between the three fracto-emission peaks and the major earthquakes occurring in the closest areas.
Regarding cold fusion, despite the great amount of experimental results, the comprehension of these phenomena still remains unsatisfactory. On the other hand, as reported by most of the articles devoted to cold fusion, one of the principal features is the appearance of micro-cracks on the electrode surfaces after the experiments. A mechanical explanation is proposed as a consequence of hydrogen embrittlement of the electrodes during electrolysis. The preliminary experimental activity was conducted using a Ni-Fe anode and a Co-Cr cathode immersed in a potassium carbonate solution. Emissions of neutrons and alpha particles were measured during the experiments as well as evident chemical composition changes of the electrodes revealing the effects of fission reactions occurring in the host lattices. The symmetrical fission of Ni appears to be a clear evidence. Such reaction would produce two Si atoms or two Mg atoms with alpha particles and neutrons as additional fragments. In order to confirm the preliminary investigation, further electrolytic tests have been conducted using Pd and Ni electrodes. As for the early experiments, relevant compositional changes and the appearance of ligther elements previously absent have been observed. The most relevant process emerging from the experiments is the primary fission of palladium (decrement of 30%) into iron and calcium. Then, secondary fissions appear in turn producing oxygen atoms, alpha particles, and neutrons. The chemical composition changes were confirmed by four repetitions of the same experiment. An extensive evaluation of the heat generation has been carried out showing a positive energy balance in correspondence to the major neutron emission peaks.