2018 - Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit & Exhibition
4-7 November 2018, Rio Othon Palace, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
Seven Nobel Laureates have already confirmed their attendance: Prof. Dan Shechtman, Prof. Sir Fraser Stoddart, Prof. Andre Geim, Prof. Thomas Steitz, Prof. Ada Yonath, Prof. Kurt Wüthrich and Prof. Ferid Murad. More than 400 Abstracts Submitted from about 60 Countries.
Abstract Submission

List of Accepted Abstracts

As of 29/11/2020: (Alphabetical Order)
  1. Intl. Symp. on Advanced Sustainable Iron and Steel Making
  2. Intl. Symp. on Electrochemistry for Sustainable Development
  3. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Molten Salt and Ionic Liquid Processing
  4. Intl. Symp. on Advanced Manufacturing of Advanced Materials and Structures with Sustainable Industrial Applications
  5. Intl. Symp. on Science of Intelligent and Sustainable Advanced Materials (SISAM)
  6. Intl. Symp. on New and Advanced Materials and Technologies for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development
  7. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Secondary Battery Manufacturing and Recycling
  8. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Surface and Interface Engineering: Coatings for Extreme Environments
  9. Intl. Symp. on Composite, Ceramic and Nano Materials Processing, Characterization and Applications
  10. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Energy Production: Fossil; Renewables; Nuclear; Waste handling , processing, and storage for all energy production technologies; Energy conservation
  11. Intl. Symp. on Environmental, Policy, Management , Health, Economic , Financial, Social Issues Related to Technology and Scientific Innovation
  12. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Mathematics Applications
  13. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Mineral Processing: Principles, Technologies and Industrial Practice
  14. Intl. Symp. on Synthesis and Properties of Nanomaterials for Future Energy Demands
  15. Intl. Symp. on Sustainable Non-ferrous Smelting and Hydro/Electrochemical Processing
  16. Summit Plenary

    To be Updated with new approved abstracts

    A Composite Nanostructured Material Based on Alumina for Use in an Airocraft Gas Turbine Engine
    Athanasios G. Mamalis1; Sergiy N. Lavrynenko2; Edwin Gevorkyan3; Vasily Dutka4; Maxim Kislitsa5;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 218
    Topic: 48

    The structure and properties of composite materials, for gas turbine engines based on nanopowders alumina, zirconium dioxide, and tungsten carbide, in the process of hot pressing by electroconsolidation are investigated. Research results on the influence of structure parameters and phase composition on the microstructure, and physical and mechanical properties of alumina composites obtained by electrosparking (electroconsolidation) are described. It has been established that the formation of a composite structure, due to the introduction of nanopowders of alumina and zirconium dioxide into the nanopowder of tungsten carbide, makes it possible to increase some of the physico-mechanical properties of the obtained composite materials.

    Keywords: Composites; Nanocomposites; Powder production and processing;

    A New Ruthenium(II) Photosensitizer With Bipyridines Containing Electron Donor/Withdrawing Groups
    Fernando Federico Salomón1; Mauricio Cattaneo2; Néstor Katz3;
    1INQUINOA, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina; 2INQUINOA, San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina; 3UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE TUCUMáN, San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 90
    Topic: 48

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes have interesting physicochemical properties that can be applied in energy conversion processes. Since the development of the Grätzel cell, considerable efforts have been made to find new materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) [1]. In this work, a new polypyridylruthenium(II) complex, of formula [Ru(DMO-bpy)2(Mebpy-CN)]2+, (1), where DMO-bpy = 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine and Mebpy-CN = 4-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine-4'-carbonitrile, has been synthesized as a PF6- salt and characterized by spectroscopic, photophysical and electrochemical techniques.
    Mebpy-CN ligand is an adequate anchoring entity to bind ruthenium photosensitizers to ZnO semiconductor surfaces in DSSCs [2]. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of (1) in CH3CN shows two intense bands with maxima at 453 and 492 nm that can be assigned to MLCT transitions from dpi(Ru) orbitals to pi* orbitals of DMO-bpy and Mebpy-CN respectively. The emission spectrum shows a band at a maximum of 679 nm, with a quantum yield Φ = 3x10-3. The redox potential of the RuIII/RuII couple was determined by CV as E1/2 = 1.12 V (vs. SCE). The cathodic shift of E1/2 and the red shifts of both the UV-Vis absorption and emission maxima respect to the corresponding values of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ are the result of destabilization of dpi(Ru) HOMOs induced by two bpys with electron-donor groups [3]. This may prove useful to enhance the efficiency of DSSCs.

    Keywords: Energy; Photovoltaics; Solar cells;

    References: [1] A. Hagefeldt, G. Boschloo, L. Sun, L. Kloo, H. Pettersson, Chem. Rev. 110 (2010) 6595-6663.<br />[2] J. H. Mecchia Ortiz, C. Longo, N. E. Katz, Inorg. Chem. Comm. 55 (2015) 69-72.<br />[3] A. Juris, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, S. Campagna, P. Belser, A. Von Zelewsky, Coord. Chem. Rev., 84 (1988) 85-277.

    A Novel Approach to Methods and Tools of Optical Spectroscopy of Viruses
    Paata Kervalishvili1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 93
    Topic: 48

    Study and detection of viruses using their oscillation optical spectrum is a revolutionary step in the development of novel methods of measurement and treatment for different diseases in modern health care. For strengthening the identification and characterization of viruses, elaboration of new instrumental designs for specific clinical needs and building up extensive databases with probabilistic identification algorithms, optical spectrometry has real potential as reliable characterization and treatment technique of viruses and virus-like particles (VLPs). Advantages of spectrometry methods before traditional methods of diagnostics are: minimized expenditure of materials, speed of response, elimination of long stages of sample preparation, elimination of the need to use of labeled reagents and chromogenic substrates, and possibility of detecting rarely cultivated forms of viruses. Nowadays, due to issues of proliferation of dangerous viruses such as Ebola, flu, and others, it is extremely important to elaborate novel procedures of biological security and relevant optical nanoinstruments (sensors).
    Work which was done by the international team includes: elaborating firstly in the world the methods for measurement of spectral characteristics of viruses, and VLPs with aim of their later treatment; monitoring oscillation characteristics of viruses with "Improvement the Sum Frequency Generation method"; investigating the possibilities of Pico and Femto second laser and other sources for performing of nonlinear measurements; developing simulation methods of oscillation effects in viruses and VLPs; elaborating the schemes of working high effective spectrometric sensory networks; studying common properties of nano-scale virus-like particles, and elaborating the basic concept of the new method for estimation unique vibration/oscillation properties, which determines the "fingerprints" of pathogenic micro-organisms, especially viruses [1-5].

    Keywords: Biomedical engineering; Hazardous materials;Viruses;Nanobioparticles;Nanoinstruments

    References: [1] Paata J. Kervalishvili, Tamar N. Bzhalava, Investigations of Spectroscopic Characteristics of Virus-Like Nanobioparticles, American Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, Vol. 6 No. 1, (2016), pp. 7-16.
    [2] P.J. Kervalishvili, T.N. Bzhalava, Modeling of Vibrational/Spectroscopic Properties of Virus-Like Nanoparticles, International Sci. Conference eRA - 11 The SynEnergy Forum, Piraeus Greece, 21- 23 September (2016), http://era.teipir.gr
    [3] P.J. Kervalishvili, Optical Spectroscopy Study of Oscillation of Pathogenic Bionanoobjects (keynote), NANOTEK-2017 March 11th-13th, (2017), Hamburg, Germany.
    [4] M. Mostafavi, A. Tadjeddine, C. Humbert, P.Kervalishvili, T. Bzhalava, T. Berberashvili, "Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy of Nano-Bio-Materials", San-Diego State University Conference, September 6-7,(2015).
    [5] M. Mostafavi, A. Tadjeddine, C. Humbert, P. Kervalishvili, T.Bzhalava, V. Kvintradze, T. Berberashvili, Optical Spectroscopy of Nanobioobjects for Sensory Applications, "2015 NanoCon (NanoTech) ISTC- Korea Conference", Seoul 2-6 November, (2015).

    A Simple Magnetic Susceptibility Measuring Technique
    Giorgios Banis1; Panayiota Tselou1; Angelo Ferraro1; Evangelos Hristoforou1; Athanasios G. Mamalis2;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 295
    Topic: 48

    A simple apparatus able to measure the magnetic susceptibility of spherical samples is demonstrated. The method is based on the equilibrium of the magnetic force applied on the specimen from a coil, and of the Stoke's force applied on the specimen by the flow of a liquid. Acquiring basic materials (coil, tube, power supply), we measured with sufficient accuracy the magnetic susceptibility of materials with unknown magnetic properties. Furthermore, by using a spherical specimen with given magnetic susceptibility, following the reverse methodology, it is possible to define the viscosity of the fluid. Thereby, we present a simple, low cost technique for fast and efficient measuring of specimens' magnetic susceptibility or viscosity of the liquid where the specimen is located.

    Keywords: High temperature/high pressure techniques; Magnetic susceptibility; Stoke's law; Fluid viscosity; VSM measurement;

    Advanced Manufacturing of Advanced Materials from Macro- to Nanoscale: Static to Shock Loading
    Athanasios G. Mamalis1;
    Type of Paper: Plenary
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 423
    Topic: 48

    Some recent trends and developments in advanced manufacturing of advanced materials from macro- to nanoscale subjected to impact and shock loading, with industrial applications to net-shape manufacturing, bioengineering, safety, transport, energy and environment, an outcome of the very extensive, over 45 years, work on this field performed by the author and his research international team, are briefly outlined. The benefits of such advanced materials, manufacturing and loading techniques, products and applications in many technological areas are significant, since their impact will make the manufacturing/machine tool sector, communications, transportations, data storage, health treatment, energy conservation, environmental and human-life protection and many other technological applications better, faster, safer, cleaner and cheaper.
    My items considered the SIPS 2018 Mamalis International Symposium may be listed as:
    1. Mechanics (Structural plasticity, Low / High speed impact loading, Hypervelocity impact, Shockwaves loading)
    2. Precision / Ultraprecision manufacturing from macro-, micro- to nanoscale (Metal forming, Metal removal processing, Surface engineering / Wear, Non-conventional techniques)
    3. Nanotechnology / Nanomaterials manufacturing
    4. Ferrous and non-ferrous (Metals, Ceramics, Superhard, Polymers, Composites, Multifunctional), materials from macro- to nanoscale (Nanostructured materials, Nanoparticles, Nanocomposites)
    5. Powder production and processing technologies (High strain-rate phenomena and treatment under shock: Explosives, Electromagnetics, High temperature / high pressure techniques)
    6. Biomechanics / Biomedical engineering
    7. Transport / Crashworthiness of Vehicles: Passive and active safety for passengers and cargo (Surface transport: Automotive, Railway; Aeronautics: Aircraft, Helicopters)
    8. Energy (Superconductors, Semiconductors, Electromagnetics, Solar cells, Photovoltaics, Nuclear reactors)
    9. Environmental aspects (Impact on climate change: Nanotechnology; Automotive industry; Aeronautics industry)
    10. Safety (Detection of explosives and hazardous materials)
    11. Defense (Ballistics, Projectiles hitting targets, Shock loading)
    12. Industrial sustainability

    Keywords: Ballistics and projectiles; Biomedical engineering; Defense; Electromagnetics; Environment; Explosives; Ferrous and non-ferrous materials; Hazardous materials; Mechanics; Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing; Powder production and processing; Safety; Shock treatment; Shock-waves loading;

    Analysis of 3D Scanning Measurements of the Plastically Deformed Aircraft Elements
    Krzysztof Zaba1; Sandra Puchlerska1; Jaroslaw Mizera2; Ryszard Sitek3;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 139
    Topic: 48

    3D scanning is a non-destructive method that allows for quick measurements of elements with varied shapes, to an accuracy of 0.05mm [1]. Due to its high universality, this method has been used in medicine [2], archaeology [3], reverse engineering [4] and in many industries, such as in aviation, automotive, energy production, foundry, plastics, etc. This paper presents the results of research aimed at the quality assessment of plastically deformed elements, using the 3D scanning method. For the tests, shell elements of plane made of aluminum alloys and jet engine housing made of nickel alloys were selected. The measurements were made with the GOM ATOS optical scanner. Analysis of the measurements in the form of dimensioned details, compared with CAD data and mathematical modeling, color map of deviations, displacement map, and inspection sections were made using the GOM INSPECT software.

    Keywords: Ferrous and non-ferrous materials; Metal forming; Precision/Ultraprecision manufacturing;

    References: [1] VDI/VDE 2634 Part 3. <br />[2] I. van den Herrewegen, K. Cuppens, M. Broeckx, B. Barisch-Fritz, J. Vander Sloten, A. Leardini, L.Peeraer, Journal of Biomechanics 47 (2014) 2531-2539.<br />[3] J. Xu, L.Dinga, P. E.D Love, Automation in Construction 76 (2017) 85-96.<br />[4] H. Gaoa, G. Sheikholeslamib, G. Deardenc, S. P. Edwardsond, Procedia Engineering 183 (2017) 369-374

    Assessment of System Failure in Compatibility of Autonomous Vehicles With Vulnerable Road Users Vindicating Passive Safety Technology
    Clive Chirwa1;
    1PPA GROUP, Deeside, United Kingdom;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 149
    Topic: 48

    The number of Autonomous Vehicles (EV) on European roads is rapidly increasing. In the UK, some cities such as London and Manchester have experienced preliminary testing of EVs on their roads in an effort to prove and promote the technology in terms of comfort, drivability and above all safety.
    Real accident data collected through in-depth analysis by the California Department of Motor Vehicles based on the statistics from crashes in the Silicon Valley where many of the world AVs are driving on public roads, show problems in the detection and recognition systems. This failure results in AVs crashing into Vulnerable Road Users causing fatal injuries.
    The statistics also show the majority of crashes to occur in inner cities, especially at junctions where high fatality rates are recorded because of turbulent traffic flows. Other crashes associated to mainly lamina traffic flow on roads such motorways are linear functions and result in fewer fatalities in comparison with the turbulent traffic modes.
    This paper assesses the influence of turbulent traffic flow on passive and active safety systems' performances. The results show that passive safety systems are better in protecting occupants in crashes within turbulent traffic flows than active safety systems. The study also shows that integrated safety systems should be designed-in and not introduced at random where they are used in superseding passive safety systems.

    Keywords: Safety; Transport/Crashworthiness of Vehicles;

    Au@Pt Core-Shell Nanoparticles with Nanostructured Dendritic Pt Shells as Solid Contacts in Ion Selective Electrodes
    Masoumeh Saber Zaeimian1; Anthony Piazza1; Athanasios G. Mamalis2; Xiaoshan Zhu1; Li Wan3;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 205
    Topic: 48

    Ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) have been widely used in chemical or clinical analysis for the detection of various ions. Conventional ISEs are fabricated with an ion selective membrane in contact with an inner solution. The inner solution causes short lifetimes of ISEs, complex assembly and maintenance, and difficulties in ISE further miniaturization. Instead of an inner solution, ISEs with an internal solid contact (SC) have been recognized as the next generation of ISEs because they possess important merits in easy miniaturization, simple fabrication and ruggedness [1-2]. Different materials ranging from conducting polymers through to inorganic nanomaterials/nanostructures (e.g., carbon, gold) have been applied as SC for ISEs.
    In this work, to the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to report using Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles with nanostructured dendritic Pt shells as an active ion-to-electron transducer layer (or solid contacts) for ISEs. Compared to other reported inorganic nanomaterials/nanostructures, the Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles possess large and electron-state-rich surfaces for high electrochemical activity, ease synthesis by simply mixing chemical reagents in room temperature, and high stability in environments due to inert noble metal compositions. We anticipate that the merits of the Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles will enhance the ISE performance in fast response, sensing stability against many interferences, low limit of detection, and wide linear detection range.
    Specifically, ISE using these nanoparticles for ammonium detection is developed. Ammonium is one of important biological nutrients in soil or environmental water and critical for the plant growth or the blooming/fading of microbiome in water. This ISE can be used for the identification and management of the nutrients for soil/water quality monitoring [3]. Moreover, ammonium is present in blood mostly as a result of the breakdown of proteins [4]. Therefore, the ISE can be used to determine the levels of this cation in plasma and thus to provide extremely relevant physiological information related to the metabolic state of the individual, dietary conditions, or even liver malfunctions. Although our ISE currently is developed on a glassy carbon rod, it can be developed on any flexible substrates for further wearable applications (e.g., detecting ammonium in sweat).

    Keywords: Biomedical engineering; Environment; Nanoparticles; Nanostructured materials; Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing; Polymers;

    References: [1] B. P. Nikolskii, E. A. Materova, Ion-Selective Electrode Reviews, 1985, 7, 3-39.
    [2] Michalska A, Electroanalysis, 2012, 24, 1253-1265.
    [3] K. Sato, W. H. Kang, K. Saga and K. T. Sato, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 1989, 20, 537-563.
    [4] R. Athavale, I. Kokorite, et al., Anal. Chem., 2015, 87, pp 11990-11997.

    Calorimetric Mechanosensors Consisting of Various Mechanisms: Triboluminescence, Structural Color, and Disassembly of Au Nanoparticles
    Mustafa Demir1; Gökhan Topçu2; Ezgi Inci2; Athanasios G. Mamalis3;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 57
    Topic: 48

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) have been widely used as alternatives for metallic materials in aerospace, defense, transportation, and automotive industries because of their lower weight, higher strength, and stiffness. The use of ultrathin fibers (eg. electrospun nanofibers) of high surface area leads to improvement in the mechanical property of FRPCs associated with the interfacial bonding between nanofibers and polymeric matrices, enhancing the load transfer from the fiber to the matrix.
    The micrometer-size porous polystyrene (PS) fibers obtained from electrospinning PS/THF solution with the nano-sized (100 to 200 nm) surface porosities were used to fill an epoxy matrix. The effect of incorporation of the PS fibers on the quasi-static and dynamic compression behavior of an epoxy matrix was examined. The addition of PS fibers and increasing strain rate increased the compressive elastic modulus and strength, which was attributed to the interlocking between the resin and fibers by the intrusions of the resin into surface pores on the fibers.
    In addition, high strain rate deformation experimental data on porous PS fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix was provided. The excessive deformation of the matrix at the interface caused extra energy expenditure to deform the composite.

    Keywords: Composites; Shock-waves loading;

    References: [1] R. F. Gibson, Compos. Struct. 92 (2010) 2793-2810.
    [2] M. M. Demir, N. Horzum, A. Tasdemirci, K. Turan, M. Guden, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 6 (2014) 21901-21905.

    Challenges in Engineering Devices that Promote Natural Gait in Amputees
    Sesh Commuri1; Bhanu Prasad Kotamraju2;
    1UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, RENO, Reno, United States; 2UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, Norman, United States;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 266
    Topic: 48

    State-of-the-art in prosthetic design for below-knee or transtibial amputees is based primarily on the biomechanics of linear walking on level surfaces [1-3]. Existing foot/ankle prostheses tend to be passive devices that cannot accommodate the demands of changing user gait or changes such as surface and slope of the terrain. Limitations on gait imposed by inadequate prosthetic devices can result in musculoskeletal pain and sores that adversely affect the health of the individual [1, 4-6]. Gait asymmetry can also lead to hip/knee replacement surgeries over time. Although some designs recognize the importance of active prosthetic devices, their implementation is complicated due to lack of functional requirements that address user gait under all conditions [7-8]. Recent developments in biomimetic control have resulted in exciting new control strategies that improve the performance of complex systems with human agents [9-10].
    While there have been significant advances made in surgical techniques, post-surgical recovery, design and fitting of prosthetic sockets, there has been limited impact on the health outcomes for the amputee. One of the main reasons for the limited improvement is because the available devices cannot easily adapt to user requirements or environments. Fully functional prosthetic feet require real-time detection of gait events to synthesize desired ankle displacements for each gait cycle to mimic natural human locomotion. Dynamic models of human-prosthetic limb system and the foot-ground interaction are also required to implement controllers that can reduce tracking error over each gait cycle (short term objective), while improving the performance over time (long term objective). In this paper, we highlight several of the challenges that have to be addressed in the design of next generation “intelligent” prosthetic devices for transtibial amputees.
    It is anticipated that the challenges identified in this paper will pave the way to developing a comprehensive solution to the design and control of computer controlled prosthetic ankles and establish benchmarks for their evaluation.

    Keywords: Biomechanics; Biomedical engineering;

    References: [1] Hansen, A.H., D.S. Childress, S.C. Miff, S.A. Gard, and K.P. Mesplay. The human ankle during walking: Implications for design of biomimetic ankle prostheses. Journal of Biomechanics, 2004. 37: p. 1467-1474.
    [2] Winter, D.A. Energy Generation and Absorption at the Ankle and Knee during Fast, Natural, and Slow Casdence. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 1983. 175: p. 147-154.
    [3] Bateni, H. and S.J. Olney. Kinematic and kinetic variations of below-knee amputee gait. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics, 2002. 14(1): p. 2-13.
    [4] A. Mai, S. Commuri, C.P. Dionne, J. Day, W.W.J. Ertl, and L.J. Regens. Effect of prosthetic feet on end-bearing characteristics in users with Transtibial Osteomyoplastic Amputation. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics, 2013. 25(3): p. 151-158.
    [5] A. Mai, S. Commuri, C.P. Dionne, J. Day, W.W.J. Ertl, and L.J. Regens. Effect of Prosthetic Feet on End-bearing Characteristics in an otherwise Healthy Male with Transtibial Osteomyoplastic Amputation. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics, 2012. 24(4): p. 211-220.
    [6] B.P. Kotamraju, S. Commuri, A. Mai, C.P. Dionne, J. Day, K. Veirs, W.W.J. Ertl, and B. Smith. Comparative Study of Residual Muscle Activity in Transtibial Amputees with Osteomyoplastic Amputation and Conventional Amputation during Varied Walking Tasks. Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics, 2018 (to appear).
    [7] Jimenez-Fabian, R. and O. Verlinden. Review of control algorithms for robotic ankle systems in lower-limb orthoses, prostheses, and exoskeletons. Medical Engineering & Physics, 2012. 34(4): p. 397-408.
    [8] Rai, J.K., R.P. Tewari, and D. Chandra. Hybrid control strategy for robotic leg prosthesis using artificial gait synthesis. International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics, 2009. 1(1): p. 44-50.
    [9] Commuri, S., and A. Mai. Intelligent control of prosthetic ankle joint using gait recognition, in Recent Advances and Future Directions in Adaptation and Control, Editors Sarangapani, J., and K.G. Vamvoudakis, 2016. Elsevier Publications. p. 635-660.
    [10] A. Mai and S. Commuri. Robust Control of Prosthetic Ankle through the Integration of User Intent. IFAC Journal of Control Engineering Practice, 2016. vol. 49, pp. 1-16.

    Chemical Transformation of Carbon Nanostructures and its Use in Nanocomposites
    Guram Bokuchava1; Tinatin Kuchukhidze1; Tamari Archuadze1; Ekaterine Sanaia1; Natia Jalagonia2;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 341
    Topic: 48

    The discovery of graphene as an important material transformed nanotechnologies. The great interest in graphene is testified by lots of articles, which are published monthly in scientific literature. It seems though, that less attention is paid to chemical properties of carbon nanostructures. Carbon nanostructures have different functional groups that have the ability to react with various organic and inorganic compounds [1], which is why it is possible to modify carbon nanostructures by different compounds and then obtain organic and inorganic composites based on the aforementioned modified nanoparticles. For example, chemically active metalorganic compounds of I, II and III group metals can react to all functional groups which contains carbon nanostructures. For this purpose, graphene suspension in DMF (obtained modified Hummers' method) has been carried out thermally at 1700°C (for removal of adsorbed water) and then triisobutylaluminum solution in toluene was added. As a result, isobutene was excreted at ambient temperature, meaning that aluminum was connected to carbon nanostructure by oxygen bridges. We have gotten C8O2(OH)2 as the estimated formula of graphene for quantitative calculation.
    Modified graphene oxide suspension by alumoorganic compunds in DMF was mixed with alumina suspension in toluene, and then the homogenization process was carried out in a nanomill. The concentration of graphene oxide suspension is 1.5%w in composite. The obtained mixture was dried and then consolidated in high temperature vacuum furnace at 14500°C under pressure 478 kg/sm2. Microhardness is 15.88 GPa (loading - 200 g) of obtained ceramic materials. Microhardness is 12.025 GPa of ceramic materials obtained from pure alumina in same condition. Testing was carried out using the Oliver-Pharr method according to ISO-14577 standard. We are continuing works to determine the optimal concentration of modified graphene oxide and researching other physical-mechanical properties [2].

    Keywords: Ceramics; Composites; Defense; Nanocomposites;

    References: [1] Lee, C. et al. Elastic and Frictional Properties of Graphene. Phys. Stat. Solidi. B 246, 2562-2567 (2009);
    [2] Hyo Jin Kim, Sung-Min Lee1, Yoon-Suk Oh, Young-Hwan Yang, Young Soo Lim, Dae Ho Yoon,Changgu Lee, Jong-Young Kim, Rodney S. Ruoff. Unoxidized Graphene/Alumina Nanocomposite: Fracture- and Wear-Resistance Effects of Graphene on Alumina Matrix. DOI: 10.1038/srep05176;

    Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Samples Obtained by Injection Molding and FDM Printing
    Marcin Bilewicz1; Tomasz Tański2;
    1, Gliwice, Poland; 2SILESIAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, Gliwice, Poland;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 243
    Topic: 48

    Rapid prototyping is the new engineering tool that is nowadays being extensively developed. One of the most common and dynamically growing increment technologies patented in 1992 by the company Stratasys is the FDM technique (Fused Deposition Modeling), in which the actual model of the product is made by extruding thermoplastic fibers through extruder. The FDM method uses artificial plastic as a building material, which is ABS and its derivatives are characterized by increased strength properties [1]. The samples obtained using injection molding and plasticized material extrusion (FDM) were the subjected to mechanical properties tests. It was found that manufacturing method defines mechanical properties for specific parameters.

    Keywords: Polymers;

    References: [1] Gibson, Ian, Rosen, David, Stucker, Brent, Additive Manufacturing Technologies 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping, and Direct Digital Manufacturing, 2015

    Concurrent Method for Design of Sustainable Multi-stage Manufacturing Processes
    Sesh Commuri1; Jelena Milisavljevic2; Farrokh Mistree2; Janet Allen2;
    1UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, RENO, Reno, United States; 2UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, Norman, United States;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 261
    Topic: 48

    Multistage manufacturing processes (MMPs) are networked manufacturing systems that have characteristics of mechanical and control systems where different manufacturing operations are performed at each stage [1]. Changing product requirements as well as desire for agility in the manufacturing process impose restrictions on the design of MMPs that could ultimately affect the sustainable operation of the manufacturing process. Some of the challenges that have to be addressed in the design of sustainable MMPs are:
    - the understanding of the functional attributes of the mechanical and control systems that comprise the MMP and their effect on the properties of the MMP [2];
    - the selection of sensors and tools and their effect on the dimensional quality of the finished product;
    - the influence of computational complexity in representing and analyzing the problem [3]; and
    - manage uncertainty in the models used to represent the MMP which limit the use of traditional design approaches [4].
    In this paper, an exploration-based method for the concurrent design of MMPs under uncertainty is presented wherein the attributes of tools and sensors are treated as design variables, thereby allowing the design engineer to assess the impact of design parameters on the performance and ultimately, the sustainability of the manufacturing process. The method is based on the compromise Decision Support Problem (cDSP) construct [5] for MMP, where MMP is described by a Stream of Variation (SoV) model [6]. The proposed method is illustrated using an example of automotive panel stamping process [7].

    Keywords: Precision/Ultraprecision manufacturing;

    References: [1] Shi, J., and Zhou, S., 2009, 'Quality Control and Improvement for Multistage Systems: A survey', IIE Transactions, Vol. 41, no.9, pp. 744-753.
    [2] Milisavljevic, J., 2015, 'Accounting for Uncertainty in the Realization of Multistage Manufacturing Processes', Masters Thesis, The School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma.
    [3] Milisavljevic Syed, J., Allen, J.K., Commuri, S., and Mistree, F., 2018, 'A Method for the Concurrent Design and Analysis of Networked Manufacturing Systems under Uncertainty,' Journal of Engineering Optimization, accepted for publication.
    [4] Milisavljevic, J., Commuri, S., Allen, J.K. and Mistree, F., 'Concurrent Design Exploration Method (CDEM) of Networked Manufacturing Systems', ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Cleveland, Ohio, Paper number DETC2017-67557, August 6- 9, 2017.
    [5] Smith, W.F., Milisavljevic, J., Sabeghi, M., Allen, J.K. and Mistree, F., 'Accounting for Uncertainty and Complexity in the Realization of Engineered Systems,' ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Boston, Massachusetts, Paper number DETC2015-46211, August 2-5, 2015.
    [6] Ding, Y., Ceglarek, D., and Shi, J., 2000, 'Modeling and Diagnosis of Multistage Manufacturing Processes: Part I - State Space Model', In Proceedings of the 2000 Japan/USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, pp. 23-26.
    [7] Apley, D., W., and Shi, J., 1998, 'Diagnosis of multiple fixture faults in panel assembly', Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, vol. 120, pp. 793-801.

    Damage Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys
    Vanderson Marcio Dornelas1; Sergio Almeida Oliveira2; Marcelo Amorim Savi1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 361
    Topic: 48

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) belong to smart materials being employed in several kinds of applications [1]. Modeling and simulations are essential issues to be considered for proper designs of these systems. In this regard, fatigue phenomenon is a special subject that needs to be investigated. In general, SMAs exhibit two kinds of fatigue: functional fatigue, related to the decrease of the functional properties; and structural fatigue, that is characterized by the nucleation and growth of microcracks which can lead to fracture [2]. This paper discusses a macroscopic three-dimensional constitutive model that describes functional fatigue in shape memory alloys. Comparisons between numerical and experimental uniaxial results are performed for the validation of the proposed model. In addition, general numerical simulations are presented in order to explore the general thermomechical behavior of SMAs.

    Keywords: Multifunctional materials;

    References: [1] M.A. Savi, A. Paiva, A.P. Baota-Neves, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 13 (2002) 261-273.
    [2] G. Eggeler, E. Hornbogen, A. Yawny, M. Wagner, Materials Science and Engineering 378 (2004) 24-33.

    Development, Modeling and Characterization of Shape Memory Alloys and their Utilization in Morphing Structures
    Dimitris C. Lagoudas1;
    1TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, College Station, United States;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 145
    Topic: 48

    Phase transforming materials exhibiting significant recoverable inelastic deformations due to reversible solid-to-solid phase transformations have both existing and potential applications in a wide variety of fields. This presentation focuses on Shape Memory Alloys (SMA), which undergo a reversible austenitic to martensitic phase transformation, and covers recent research efforts to characterize and model their behavior to enhance the applicability of these materials in multiple engineering capacities and requirements. We first discuss the recent development of several new SMA beyond NiTi alloys, especially high temperature NiTiHf alloys and their key characteristics and potential for applications. We then review the micromechanical modeling of SMA, modeling of fatigue and fracture of SMA, and modeling of SMA structural components and morphing structures. Since precipitation can adjust their thermomechanical cyclic stability, phase transformation temperatures, and transformation strains, micromechanical modeling of SMAs focuses on the prediction of precipitation hardened SMA's behavior to capture their thermomechanical response. Using SMAs in applications requires understanding their durability and especially their actuation fatigue life and fracture properties, so we investigate the phase transformation induced fatigue under load (actuation fatigue) and fracture under thermal actuation. Finally, we present some applications inspired by origami based designs of foldable morphing structures.

    Keywords: High temperature/high pressure techniques; Mechanics; Structural plasticity;

    DFT Insights into the Role of Relative Positions of Fe and N Dopants on the Structure and Properties of TiO2
    Sahar Ramin Gul1; Matiullah Khan2; Zeng Yi3; Bo Wu1; Athanasios G. Mamalis4;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 32
    Topic: 48

    The location and nature of doped elements strongly affect the structural, electronic, and optical properties of TiO2. To tailor the band structure and modify the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2, a pair of dopants is selected. Fe and N atoms are inserted in the TiO2 network at substitutional and interstitial sites with different relative distances. The main objective behind the different locations and sites of the doped elements is to banish the isolated unoccupied states from the forbidden region that normally annihilates the photogenerated carriers. Fe at the Ti site and N at the O site doped in the TiO2 network separated at a distance of 7.805 Å provided a suitable configuration of dopant atoms in terms of geometry and band structure. Moreover, the optical properties showed a notable shift to the visible regime. Individual dopants either introduced isolated unoccupied states in the band gap or disturbed the fermi level and structural properties. Furthermore, the other co-doped configurations showed no remarkable band shift, as well as exhibiting a suitable band structure. Resultantly, comparing the band structure and optical properties, it is argued that Fe (at Ti) and N (at O) doped at a distance of 7.805 Å would strongly improve the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2.

    Keywords: Energy; Engineering; Environment;

    References: [1] Sato, S. Photocatalytic activity of NOx-doped TiO2 in the visible light region. Chem. Phys. Lett. 1986, 123, 126-128, doi:10.1016/0009-2614(86)87026-9.
    [2] Shen, Y.; Xiong, T.; Li, T.; Yang, K. Tungsten and nitrogen co-doped TiO2 nano-powders with strong visible light response. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 2008, 83, 177-185, doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.01.037.
    [3] Khan, M.; Yi, Z.; Gul, S.R.; Wang, Y.; Fawad, U. Visible-light-active silver-, vanadium-codoped TiO2 with improved photocatalytic activity. J. Mater. Sci. 2017, 52, 5634-5640, doi:10.1007/s10853-017-0798-y.
    [4] Liu, X.; Liu, Z.; Zheng, J.; Yan, X.; Li, D.; Chen, S.; Chu, W. Characteristics of N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays by N2-plasma for visible light-driven photocatalysis. J. Alloys Compd. 2011, 509, 9970-9976, doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2011.08.003.
    [5] Bonch-Bruevich, V.L.K.; Robert, S. The Electronic Structure of Heavily Doped Semiconductors; American Elsevier Pub. Co.: New York, NY, USA, 1966; pp. 55-68.
    [6] Di Valentin, C.; Pacchioni, G.; Selloni, A.; Livraghi, S.; Giamello, E. Characterization of paramagnetic species in N-doped TiO2 powders by EPR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 11414-11419, doi:10.1021/jp051756t.
    [7] Wang, Y.; Wu, Y.; Yang, H.; Xue, X.; Liu, Z. Doping TiO2 with boron or/and cerium elements: Effects on photocatalytic antimicrobial activity. Vacuum 2016, 131, 58-64, doi:10.1016/j.vacuum.2016.06.003.
    [8] Liu, X.; Khan, M.; Liu, W.; Xiang, W.; Guan, M.; Jiang, P.; Cao, W. Synthesis of nanocrystalline Ga-TiO2 powders by mild hydrothermal method and their visible light photoactivity. Ceram. Int. 2015, 41 Pt B, 3075-3080, doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2014.10.151.

    Dynamic Compressive Behavior of An E-Glass/Polyester Composite Material Subjected to Repeated Loads
    Alper Tasdemirci1; Mesut Bayhan1; Semih Berk Seven1; Ayda Ramyar1; Mustafa Guden1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 124
    Topic: 48

    Composite materials are generally used as spall liner of the vehicle hull in military applications to protect the cabin crew from injuries [1]. In these applications, composite materials may be subjected to single or multiple impact loads. There are several studies on single loading impact events, but very few studies focused on repeated loadings. To determine the multi hit protection capability of materials using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB), Chen and Luo modified the conventional SHPB apparatus to deform ceramic specimen using two consecutive stress pulses [2]. Xia et al. performed an experimental study on OFHC Copper materials using stuffed strikers [3]. Rachel et al. conducted a study on copper and iron using a single striker bar formed two rods of dissimilar materials [4]. Bazle et al. carried out ballistic tests to obtain the multi hit capacity of S-2 glass/SC15 thick section composites [5].
    In this study, multi-hit compressive behavior of a composite material was investigated both experimentally and numerically in the through-thickness direction. Repeated loading tests were carried out using the SHPB set-up, and LS-DYNA was used to simulate the tests numerically. To understand the failure mechanisms and damage progression, MAT_162 material model was selected. DYNAIN method was used to model the multiple impacts. This method allows to incorporate the damage attained in the specimen occurred during the first impact in the numerical model of the subsequent loadings.
    It was observed that delamination was occurred between the layers at regions particularly close to the specimen-incident bar interface. After the second hit, matrix damage propagated along the interfaces and the composite failed catastrophically. Experimental and numerical results showed close agreement in terms of failure mechanisms and damage initiation/progression. The numerical model can successfully predict the amount of strength decrease between the repeated loadings.

    Keywords: Composites; Low/High speed impact loading; Mechanics;

    References: [1] R. A. Ash, "9 - Vehicle armor A2 - Bhatnagar, Ashok," in Lightweight Ballistic Composites (Second Edition), ed: Woodhead Publishing, 2016, pp. 285-309.
    [2] W. Chen and H. Luo, "Dynamic compressive responses of intact and damaged ceramics from a single split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment," Experimental Mechanics, vol. 44, pp. 295-299, Jun 2004.
    [3] K. Xia, R. Chen, S. Huang, and S. N Luo, Controlled multipulse loading with a stuffed striker in classical split Hopkinson pressure bar testing vol. 79, 2008.
    [4] R. E. Briggs, D. R. Drodge, D. M. Williamson, and W. G. Proud, "TWO-STEP LOADING IN A SPLIT HOPKINSON PRESSURE BAR," AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 955, pp. 1173-1176, 2007.
    [5] Z. H. Bazle, L. H. Jessica, and John W Gillespie, Jr., "Multi-hit ballistic impact on S-2 glass/SC15 thick-section composites: experiments," The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, vol. 47, pp. 480-494, 2012/10/01 2012.

    Dynamic Pressure Change of a Liquid Sloshing in a Rotating, Laterally Oscillating, Cylindrical Container
    Tatsuo Sawada1; Eisaku Yokose1; Yusuke Saito1;
    1KEIO UNIVERSITY, Yokohama, Japan;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 111
    Topic: 48

    Sloshing is the largely wave-like motion of the free surface of a liquid caused by the oscillation of a container. Even if the oscillation is small, the changes in the liquid level may increase. Swirling is the rotation of the free surface of a liquid that takes place when sloshing occurs in an axisymmetric container. There are two types of swirling: stable rotations and unstable rotations. Both sloshing and swirling are concerns for oil tanks, membrane-type LNG tankers, liquid-fuel tanks in rockets and missiles, etc. Hutton [1] investigated the motion of fluid in a tank undergoing transverse oscillations, and he predicted the range of frequencies over which swirling occurs. Numerous theoretical, experimental, and numerical studies of these phenomena have been conducted, as summarized by Ibrahim et al. [2-3].
    Ohaba et al. [4] experimentally investigated the frequency response of the lateral sloshing and rotation of the (1, 1) mode wave in a cylindrical container undergoing uniform rotation around the vertical axis. They found that the direction of the swirling rotation depends on the excitation conditions and the rotation frequency. They pointed out that the swirling generated in a cylindrical container undergoing lateral oscillations can be stabilized by the energy dissipation caused by the rotational motion. Saito and Sawada [5] considered the qualitative influence of the rotation frequency of the cylindrical container on water sloshing, and they speculated that the rotational motion may stabilize the sloshing fluctuations of the free surface.
    In the present study, we clarify the dynamic characteristics of swirling in a rotating, laterally oscillating, cylindrical container. We measured the time-dependent dynamic pressure of the liquid on the wall of the container instead of the free-surface displacement of the liquid. The experimental parameters are the lateral forcing frequency, the rotation frequency of the cylindrical container, the liquid depth, and the viscosity of the liquid. We have also carried out a theoretical analysis in order to understand the experimental results.

    Keywords: Mechanics;

    References: [1] R. E. Hutton, NASA Tech. Note D-1870 (1963) 1-64.
    [2] R. A. Ibrahim, V. N. Pilipchuk, T. Ikeda, Appl. Mech. Rev. 54 (2001) 133-199.
    [3] R. A. Ibrahim, Liquid sloshing dynamics, (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2005).
    [4] M. Ohaba, T. Sawada, S. Sudo, T. Tanahashi, Proc. JSME Fluids Eng. Conf. (1995) 203-204.
    [5] Y. Saito, T. Sawada, Unvrsl. J. Mech. Eng. 5 (2017) 97-101.

    Effect of Deformation on Phases Formation and Properties of Surface Layers in Fe-based Alloys Under Diffusion of N and C
    Sergii Sidorenko1; Lesya Demchenko2; Anatoliy Titenko3; Tie-Zhen Ren4;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 178
    Topic: 48

    The diffusion saturation of iron-based alloys with nitrogen and carbon is widely used in industry for increasing strength, hardness, wear, and corrosion resistance of metal products operating in extreme environments. Inexhaustible and unrealized potentialities of such treatments are unconvered when applying it under strain and stress condition [1]. In this context, the question at hand is to clarify diffusion and strengthening mechanisms of strained alloys under chemical-thermal treatment by N and C.
    The effect of preliminary plastic deformation from 5 to 70 % with the step 5 and 10 % on nanostructured diffusion layers formation, kinetics of their growth, chemical and phase composition, and microhardness were studied in α-Fe and iron-based (Fe-Cr, Fe-Ti, Fe-Cr-Ti, Fe-Ni) alloys doped with Cr, Ti or Ni in the amount of (0.5-2.0wt.%) after the saturation with nitrogen and carbon from a gas mixture of ammonia and propane-butane, at 853 K for 0.5; 1; 2; 4; 6; 8 hours [2].
    As a result of the investigation, it was found that the diffusion layer is a combination of surface layers of different nanosized nitride phases (ξ-, ε-, γ'-), nanostructured (γ' + ε-) — eutectoid layer and a nanostructured zone of internal saturation (α- phase). Deformation considerably affects the phase formation, structure, microhardness, and thickness of nitrided layers. Microhardness test of the nitrided layers led to the discovery of narrow intervals of deformations of 3-8 % and 20-30 %, in which there was considerable rise (about double) of the surface diffusion layer's microhardness in α-Fe after nitriding. The high microhardness of the diffusion layers results from the formation of nanosized ε- and γ'- nitrides. The concentration distribution of N and C and the depth of their penetration also depends on the deformation degree, correlated with the microhardness test results.
    The possible mechanisms of diffusion and mass-transfer of interstitials (N and C) in deformed alloys are discussed, and in particular, the possibilities of the interstitials mass-transfer with mobile dislocations in deformed alloys according to the dislocation-dynamic mechanism are considered [3].

    Keywords: Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing; Powder production and processing;

    References: [1] S.I. Sidorenko, V.G. Tinyayev, L.D. Demchenko, Yu.P. Sheiko, Met. Phys. Adv. Tech. 18 (2000) 1383-1392
    [2] L. Demchenko, S. Sidorenko, V. Tinyaev, Defect and Diffusion Forum 216-217 (2003) 87-92
    [3] L. Demchenko, S. Sidorenko, Defect and Diffusion Forum 309-310 (2011) 155-160

    Efficiency of Hard Machining Processes
    János Kundrák1; Athanasios G. Mamalis2; Viktor Molnar1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 158
    Topic: 48

    Machining of hardened surfaces has improved significantly in the past. In addition to long-lasting abrasive machining, machining with cutting tools having geometrically defined single point cutting edges has also appeared, and its productivity gets better and better. This paper analyzes the efficiency of various processes in producing surfaces with the same quality parameters (Rz, IT). The investigated procedures or process variants are: traverse bore grinding; hard-turning with standard insert; hard-turning with Wiper inserts; combined process with standard inserts in hard-turning stage; and combined process with Wiper inserts in hard-turning stage.
    In the first step, we provide the results of the experimental tests by which we chose the machining data for the different processes, to ensure the required quality in each case. Based on the examination of Material Removal Rate (MRR), Surface Rate (SR), environmental load, and machining flexibility, we determine the order of their application based on the expected operating conditions. It is shown that the Material Removal Rate is most favourable for variants of hard-turning. However, if the operating conditions of a built-in component require a random surface, the most efficient process is combined machining. This order is also advantageous compared to conventional machining because the proposed variants also reduce the environmental load.

    Keywords: Environment; Precision/Ultraprecision manufacturing; Superhard materials;

    References: [1] Kundrak, J.; Mamalis, A.G.; Markopoulos, A., Finishing of hardened boreholes: Grinding or hard cutting? Mat. and Manuf. Process., Vol.19, No.6, 2004, pp. 979-993.
    [2] Mamalis, A.G., Kundrak, J., Gyani, K. On the dry machining of steel surfaces using superhard tools, Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.19, No.3. 2002, pp. 157-162
    [3] Kundrak, J.; Varga, G.: Use of coolants and lubricants in hard machining, TEHNICKI VJESNIK-TECHNICAL GAZETTE (ISSN: 1330-3651) (eISSN: 1848-6339) 20: (6) pp. 1081-1086. (2013)

    ENERGY CLOUD Service and TOMONI - Holistic Solutions for Energy Intensive Industries
    Emmanuel Kakaras1; Michalis Agraniotis1; Christian Bergins1; Torsten Buddenberg1; Nikolaos T. Athanassoulis2;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 80
    Topic: 48

    European energy intensive industries are considerably affected by today's changing energy market landscape. Securing quality, competitiveness, and low environmental impact of final industrial products by changing conditions in the energy market requires extended efforts from the industry side. More specifically, the ongoing increase of RES' share in energy mix and the European targets on energy efficiency in industry have several implications, as well on technical aspects (additional requirements on flexibility, control reserve, dispatchable power generation, demand side management, energy storage), as also on economic aspects (decrease of whole sale electricity price, increase of taxes and surcharges, disruptive business models). In this changing landscape the task of matching energy supply with energy use following a continuous optimization process becomes of prime importance. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries has developed ENERGY CLOUD Service, an integrated toolbox of solutions assisting large energy users to overcome these challenges. It may support customer's needs in different operating levels, from a) performance monitoring, visualization and O&M optimization, to b) data analysis and evaluation for plant engineering level to c) providing information to management to supporting strategic decisions. Additionally, TOMONI is MHPS's state of the art condition monitoring and maintenance optimization tool, which utilizes advances AI techniques. ENERGY CLOUD Service and TOMONI utilize MHI's and MHPS's vast industrial know how and own developed AI technology, in order to use operating data towards optimization of operation and maintenance of assets and overall plants. In the present paper additional information about successful implementation cases of ENERGY CLOUD Service and TOMONI are reported.

    Keywords: Energy;

    Explosion Systems with Inert High Modulus Components: Unexpected Phenomena and Opportunities
    Igor Balagansky1;
    1NOVOSIBIRSK STATE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, Movosibirsk, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Invited
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 33
    Topic: 48

    The data received during the experiments on detonation in high explosive charges, which contain inert elements made of materials in which sound velocity is significantly higher than detonation velocity, are systematically reviewed. The shock waves exiting from inert materials due to detonation may outrun the detonation front and compress the explosive material ahead of the front. These lead to changes in the explosive state and related changes in kinetics of the detonation transition. As a result, the stationarity of the process is violated, which lead to unpredictable alterations in the detonation phenomena.
    The phenomena occurring in such systems are described in detail: desensitization of high explosives, nonstationary detonation processes, energy focusing, and Mach stems formation. The hyper-speed flows of ceramic particles arising due to the explosive collapse of ceramic tubes are described. The possibility of designing protective structures from explosion, based on high modulus ceramic materials, is considered. The structural transformations, caused by energy focusing, or by the impact of hyper-speed ceramic jet in metallic materials, are discussed. These transformations include, but are not limited to adiabatic shear banding, phase transformations, mechanical twinning, melting, boiling, and even evaporation of the impacted substrates.
    From the practical point of view, this may lead to the decrease or increase in the efficiency of various explosive technologies. The understanding of its origins, time evolution, and the non-stationary phenomena in such explosion systems may provide us a useful instrument to increase the efficiency of explosive technologies and to purposefully control the detonation process.

    Keywords: Ballistics and projectiles; Ceramics; Explosives; High strain-rate phenomena; Hypervelocity impact;

    References: [1] Balagansky I.A., Razorenov S.V., Utkin A.V. Detonation parameters of condensed high explosive charges with long ceramic elements // Proceedings of the
    10th International Detonation Symposium. Boston, USA, 1993. P. 841-845.
    [2] Acceleration device based on high explosive charge which contains high modular ceramic tube / I.A. Balagansky, V.A. Agureikin, I.F. Kobilkin, N.I. Nosenko, V.V. Naumov, A.V. Vinogradov, A.I. Balagansky // International Journal of Impact Engineering. 1999. Vol. 22. P. 813-823.
    [3] Evolution of shock waves in silicon carbide rods / I.A. Balagansky, A.I. Balagansky, S.V. Razorenov, A.V. Utkin // Proceedings of the 14th APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter. Baltimore, USA, 2006. P. 835-838.
    [4] Study of energy focusing phenomenon in explosion systems, which include high modulus elastic elements / I.A. Balagansky, K. Hokamoto, P. Manikandan, A.D. Matrosov, I.A. Stadnichenko, H. Miyoshi, I.A. Bataev, A.A. Bataev, A.A. Stepanov // Proceedings of the 14th International Detonation Symposium. Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, 2010. P. 583-590.
    [5] Mach stem formation in explosion systems, which include high modulus elastic elements / I.A. Balagansky, K. Hokamoto, P. Manikandan, A.D. Matrosov, I.A. Stadnichenko, H. Miyoshi, I.A. Bataev, A.A. Bataev // Journal of Applied Physics 110, 123516 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3671063.
    [6] Balagansky I.A., Stepanov A.A. Numerical simulation of Composition B high explosive charge desensitization in gap test assembly after loading by precursor wave // Shock Waves. 2016. Vol. 26. P. 109-115. doi: 10.1007/s00193-015-0584-1.
    [7] Balagansky I.A., Vinogradov A.V., Merzhievsky L.A., Matrosov A.D., Stadnichenko I.A. Analysis of Shell Material Influence on Detonation Process in High Explosive Charge, Key Engineering Materials (2016) ISSN: 1662-9795, Vol. 715, pp 27-32.
    [8] Balagansky I. A. Modelling of fast jet formation under explosion collision of two-layer alumina/copper tubes / I. A. Balagansky, A. V. Vinogradov, L. A. Merzhievsky // The International Journal of Multiphysics. - 2017. - Vol. 11, 3. - P. 265-375. - DOI: 10.21152/1750-9548.11.3.265.
    [9] Generation of Hypervelocity Particle Flows by Explosive Compression of Ceramic Tubes / I. A. Balaganskii, L. A. Merzhievskii, V. Y. Ul'yanitskii, I. A. Bataev, A. A. Bataev, A. D. Matrosov, I. A. Stadnichenko, I. S. Batraev, A. V. Vinogradov // Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves. - 2018.- Vol. 54.- No. 1.- pp. 119-124. - DOI: 10.1134/S0010508218010173.

    Explosive Forming of Metal Tubes for Heat Exchangers
    Andras Szalay1; Athanasios G. Mamalis2; Istvan Zador3; Pal Racz4; Hasebe Toshiaki3;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 86
    Topic: 48

    Large quantities of hot flue gases are generated from kilns, ovens, and furnaces. If some of this waste heat could be recovered, a considerable amount of primary fuel could be conserved. Although the energy lost in waste gases cannot be fully recovered, much of the heat could be recovered by heat exchangers or recuperators, and the loss will be reduced. A heat exchanger is an equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. Generally, the two media are separated by a solid metallic wall, so that they never mix. These tubular heat exchangers are widely used in power plants, chemical plants, and metal processing plants.
    The main requirement for heat exchanger tubes is that the heat transfer between the media inside the tube and outside the tube should be at the maximum. This can be achieved in many ways; the most frequently used solution is the modification of the tubes construction as creation of enhanced surface, or applying spiral strips for causing turbulence in the streaming media.
    An innovative solution is enhancing the efficiency of the heat exchanger tubes by creating spiral deformations on the tubes. The advantages of the properly designed deformation of the tube material are twofold: on one hand the heat transferring surface of the tubes will be enlarged, and on the other hand the deformations will cause turbulence in the streaming media, enhancing the heat transfer. The task can be solved by explosive tubeforming [1]. The optimal form of the tubes have been designed by thermo-hydraulic computer simulation based on the ANSYS system [2]. The plastic deformation of the tubes is carried out by high pressure shock waves created by explosion of detonating cords positioned on the outer surface of the tubes. The efficiency of the heat exchangers built with explosively formed tubes are cca. 10 % higher than the heat exchangers built with plain tubes. In this presentation we briefly report the results of the simulations and introduce the manufacturing process.

    Keywords: Metal forming; Shock treatment;

    References: [1] Prümmer R, Explosive Welding, Forming and Compaction. Ed. T.Z. Blazynski, Applied Science, London 1983.
    [2]. A.Szalay, A. G. Mamalis, I. Zador, A. K. Vortselas, L. Lukacs: Explosive metalworking: experimental and numerical modeling aspects International Symposium on Explosion, Shock wave and High-energy reaction Phenomena 2013 March 27 - 29, 2013 Nago, Okinawa, Japan

    Faultless Steel Production and Manufacturing
    Xenia Vourna1; Evangelos Hristoforou1; Athanasios G. Mamalis2;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 294
    Topic: 48

    Faultless steel production and manufacturing (FASTEP) represents a new method and technology for surface and bulk stress distribution monitoring and rehabilitation in steels. The quality of the steel and corresponding products depends on the distribution and level of stresses in its volume and surface, since stress gradient is responsible for steel cracking generation & failure. The existing technology in stress monitoring concerns either surface stress distribution monitoring instruments with unacceptably high uncertainty, or point surface stress sensors, or surface and bulk laboratory techniques not able to operate in industrial environment. Therefore, a method to provide stress tensor distribution monitoring on the surface and in the bulk of steels would be the feedback system to not only monitor stresses but actually to achieve stress rehabilitation. FASTEP solution in achieving stress distribution monitoring in steel production, manufacturing and use, is related to a new method and technology, currently pending for patent, offering stress tensor distribution monitoring on the surface and the bulk of steels, steel welds and products based on them. The achieved uncertainty has been <1% for surface or bulk stress measurements, with speeds as high as 100/s per point of measurement, compared to ~10% uncertainty and speed of 1-10 s per point of the existing state of the art, thus opening a new era in diagnostics & therapeutics in steel industry. Such a technology can be the feedback system for automated stress rehabilitation (annihilation or strengthening) process in steel production and manufacturing, as well as in installed steel structures (end-user applications).

    Keywords: Mechanics; Surface engineering/Wear, Non-conventional techniques; Stress rehabilitation; Steel; Monitoring;

    Giant Magneto-impedance Sensor for Steel Health Monitoring
    Spyridon Angelopoulos1; Xenia Vourna1; Aphrodite Ktena2; Panagiotis Tsarabaris1; Evangelos Hristoforou1; Athanasios G. Mamalis3;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 297
    Topic: 48

    The measurement of surface magnetic permeability is a very useful non-destructive testing technique. A new sensor is described, providing a method for measuring surface magnetic permeability and residual stress. The development and use of this type of sensor eliminates the requirement of permanent magnets or coils in order to produce the magnetic field. On the contrary, the magnetic field is generated by a thin film current conductor, with a sensing element placed above. The sensing element, being an amorphous magnetic wire or ribbon, is affected by the principles of giant magneto-impedance. As a result, the output voltage of the sensing element, monotonically depends on the changes of the magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic material, upon which the sensor is placed. Calibration of the sensor is mandatory, in order to provide accurate measurements. As a result, the changes of the magnetic permeability can be related with the residual stress tensor distribution on the surface of a ferromagnetic material under test. The advantages of this technique include high sensitivity, low uncertainty, high resolution, and high speed of measurements. The final results can be locally stored, or wirelessly transmitted to the preferred receiver. The sensor is easily manufactured, low cost, and is robust enough to be used in industrial environments.

    Keywords: Electromagnetics; Magnetic sensors; Surface magnetic permeability; Giant magneto-impedance; Non-destructive testing;

    Glasses for Seeing Beyond the Visible
    Jacques Lucas1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF RENNES, Rennes, France;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 201
    Topic: 48

    Glasses transmitting light up to 20 micrometers have been discovered in the family base on Se and Te. Those out of equilibrium solids are stable enough to be shaped into two kinds of objects: IR lenses and optical fibers. An original molding technique was used to transform the glass into complex lenses with aspheric configuration. These IR optics are used for night vision systems in IR cameras and all kinds of thermal imaging devices. They provide low cost and sustainable heat measurement systems. Taking advantage of the possibilty to control the viscosity of those glasses as a fonction of temperature it is possible to transform these materials into long infared fibers. From this, we have developed sensors based on Fiber Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy. This technique allows the in-situ collection of the IR spectra of molecules. Applications in medecine with the analysis of biological liquid such as humam serum will be presented. Also the analysis of water pollution for environment control wil be described. Four start up companies located close to the campus were born from this research

    Keywords: Biomedical engineering; Ceramics; Defense; Environment;

    References: [1] X.Zhang, B.Bureau, P.Lucas, C.Boussard-Pledel, Jacques LUCAS. Chem. Euro. J. 2008, 14, 432-444

    Hydrogen Segregation in Palladium: Influence of Hydrogen Content, Temperature and Defects
    Tahir Cagin1; Han Leng2; Hieu H. Pham2;
    1TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, College Station, United States; 2TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, College Station, United States;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 216
    Topic: 48

    Atomistic simulations were carried out to investigate the properties of Pd crystals as a combined function of structural defects, hydrogen concentration and high temperature. These factors are found to individually induce degradation in the mechanical strength of Pd in a monotonous manner. In addition, defects such as vacancies and grain boundaries could provide a driving force for hydrogen segregation, thus enhance the tendency for their trapping [1,2]. The simulations show that hydrogen maintains the highest localization at grain boundaries at ambient temperatures. This finding correlates well with the experimental observation that hydrogen embrittlement is more frequently observed around room temperature [3]. The strength-limiting mechanism of mechanical failures induced by hydrogen is also discussed, which supports the hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity theorem. We will also report on the influence of hydrogen content on thermodynamic properties such as melting point, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient and mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and Young's modulus as a function of temperature.

    Keywords: High temperature/high pressure techniques; Mechanics; Structural plasticity;

    References: [1] R. B. McLellan and L. Yang, Acta Metallurgica et Materialia 43 (6), 2463-2467 (1995).
    [2] T. Mütschele and R. Kirchheim, Scripta Metallurgica 21 (2), 135-140 (1987)
    [3] H. Conrad, G. Ertl, and E.E. Latta, Adsorption of Hydrogen on Palladium Single-Crystal Surfaces. Surface Science, 41(2), 435-446 (1974).

    Identification of a Peptide that can Enhance Genotoxic Sensitivity Through Cellular Redistribution of Chk1 Protein
    Kwang Seok Kim1; Sang Jun Park1; Chun-Ho Kim1;
    1KIRAMS, Seoul, South Korea;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 414
    Topic: 48

    Chk1 protein has been a target in the detectable genotoxic sensitivity of cells and tissues, and a major focus of pharmaceutical development to enhance sensitivity of tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy [1]. To take advantage of such biological effects, we identified a specific Chk1-binding 12-mer peptide from screening of phage display library and characterized the peptide in terms of cellular cytotoxicity, and effect on Chk1 activity, and sensitivity to genotoxic agents [2]. Interestingly, polyarginine-mediated internalization of the peptide redistributed nuclear Chk1 with prominent decrease in the nucleus in the absence of DNA damage. Treatment of HeLa cervical cancer cells or NCI-H460 lung cancer cells with the peptide significantly enhanced radiation sensitivity following ionizing radiation (IR). Moreover, IR-induced Chk1 destabilization was aggravated by Chk1 peptide treatment. The approach using the specific Chk1 peptide may facilitate a mechanistic understanding and potential modulation of Chk1 activities and provide a novel rationale for development of specific Chk1-targeting agents [3-4].

    Keywords: Biomedical engineering;

    References: 1. Zhang Y, Hunter T. Roles of Chk1 in cell biology and cancer therapy. Int J Cancer. 2014;134(5):1013-23
    2. KS Kim, KJ Choi, SW Bae. A novel Chk1-binding peptide that can enhance genotoxic sensitivity through cellular redistribution of nuclear Chk1. 2016. Int J Mol Med 38:1490-1498
    3. Saladin A, Rey J, Thevenet P, Zacharias M, Moroy G, Tuffery P. PEP-SiteFinder: a tool for the blind identification of peptide binding sites on protein surfaces. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:W221-6.
    4. Kawabe T. G2 checkpoint abrogators as anticancer drugs. Mol Cancer Ther 2004; 3:513-9.

    Improving the Accuracy of Heavy Lathes
    Viktor Kovalov1; Yana Antonenko2; Marina Saenko1;
    1DONBAS STATE ENGINEERING ACADEMY, Kramatorsk, Ukraine; 2, Kramatorsk, Ukraine;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 418
    Topic: 48

    Improving the accuracy of heavy lathes is a complex and critical problem in achieving the quality of new products. At present, from the theoretical and experimental studies of numerous scientists, considerable material on technological quality assurance of processing [2] has been accumulated, which allows the creation of mathematical models for controlling the processing on machines [1-3].
    Based on the calculation of limit values of distributed loads which act on the base frame support, deformation strength by method of finite elements were modeled with the tool package CosmosWorks. The simulation was performed for the cases that have the most significant effect on the size of the deformation of the carrier system [4]. To determine the optimal construction of a heavy machine lathe with a carrying capacity of 100 tons, a comparative analysis of the results of computer modeling of the welded frame and field studies of the cast frame of heavy lathes were carried out. As a result of production tests, the coincidence of the results of mathematical modeling with full-scale tests is found to be 6-25%.
    The design of the frame heavy lathe high accuracy load capacity of 100 tons, with the possibility of machining up to 12.5 m and 2.5 m in diameter with maximum cutting powers of 200 kN are developed. Recommendations on designing of carrier systems of CNC heavy machine tools high accuracy are given. Deformations of the frame of support under extreme workloads are presented in a range from 29 microns to 83 microns. The results are introduced at PJSC KZTS range with the release of heavy CNC lathes of new generation. One of the most promising ways to further improve the accuracy of machine tools is to equip their with adaptive systems [5].

    Keywords: Mechanics; Metal removal processing; Precision/Ultraprecision manufacturing;

    References: References:
    [1] Brgozovsky B.M. The accuracy and reliability of automated precision machine tools.Saratov: SGTU 1992; 124. (In Russian)
    [2] Averchenkov V.I., Fedorov V.P., Heyfec M.P. Fundamentals of mathematical modelling of engineering systems. Bryansk: BGTU 2004; 271. (In Russian)
    [3] Jung J.H., Choi J.P., Lee S.J. Machining accuracy enhancement by compensating for volumetric errors of a machine tool and on-machine measurement. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2006, 174 (1-3); 56-66.
    [4] Kovalev V., Vasilchenko Y., Gakov S., Kurilenko Y. Trends of adaptive control of accuracy of the technological system on the basis of heavy machine-tools, 2. International Conference "ICQME 2007", Budva, Montenegro, 2007, pp. 263-275.
    [5] Kovalev, V.D.; Vasilchenko, Y.V. and DašiA�, P.: Adaptive optimal control of a heavy lathe operation. Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation (JMEA), Vol. 4, Issue 4 (April 2014), pp. 269-275.

    Improving the Efficiency of Machining Through Modifying Carbide Cutting Tips by Pulsed Magnetic Field Processing
    Viktor Kovalov1; Yana Vasilchenko1; Maxim Shapovalov1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 419
    Topic: 48

    This paper solves the problem of increasing the productivity of machining, as well as reducing both the cost of cutting tools and equipment downtime associated with tool failures and its replacement.
    The task of increasing the strength characteristics of the hard alloy tools necessitates the development of modification methods that affect the entire volume of the material. The requirements that are put forward for these methods are low cost, environmentally friendly, and make its application in the conditions of the machine - building enterprise possible. The method of processing by a pulsed magnetic field satisfies these requirements [1-4].
    It is found that the modification of hard alloy metal by pulsed magnetic field processing leads to the increase in its homogeneity, the decrease in the thickness of the crack layer, the stabilization of mechanical characteristics, and the increase in the bending strength.
    Modification of carbide cutting tips by pulse magnetic field machining is carried out on the equipment, which consists of a pulse generator with a power supply and an inductor. The influence of the pulsed magnetic field on the strength and wear resistance of carbide cutting tips for improving the performance of tooling and reducing the operation and tool costs is investigated. Technological modes of pulsed magnetic field machining by combined technologies (pulsed magnetic field processing + vacuum plasma coating) of samples of tool materials and carbide cutting tips have been worked out.
    The application of the method of "destructive feeding" for laboratory and production evaluation of structural strength of carbide tips is justified. The method of step-by-step increase of cutting conditions (feeding and cutting speed) allows to implement the principle of extrapolation on loads by gradually increasing loading of strength and wear rate of the tool material.
    It was found that by roughing of materials with carbide cutting tips hardened by pulsed magnetic field, a multiple tool burnishing with several degrees of slowdown and acceleration of the wear process takes place. This leads to wear resistance increase of carbide cutting tips.

    Keywords: Metal removal processing; Multifunctional materials; Superhard materials; Surface engineering/Wear, Non-conventional techniques;

    References: [1] Postnikov, S.N.: Perestrojka defektnyh kompleksov v kristallicheskih tvyordyh telah pod dejstviem magnitnyh polej doporogovyh ehnergij. Prikladnye problemy prochnosti i plastichnosti. Statika i dinamika deformiruemyh system. Vsesoyuznyj mezhvuzovskij sbornik. Gor'kij, 1980, 138 p. (in Russian)
    [2] Soroka, O., Rodichev, Y., Kovalov, V., Vasilchenko, Y.: Strengthening of carbide cutting tool for heavy machinery on the base of surface and bulk modification by physical methods. Vіsnik Ternopіl's'kogo Nacіonal'nogo tekhnіchnogo unіversitetu іm. І. Pulyuya. 2013, vol. 71, 3, pp. 133-145. (In Ukrainian)
    [3] Y.Rodichev, O. Soroka, V. Kovalov, Y.Vasilchenko, Predicting the fatigue strength of hard alloys, treated with pulsed magnetic field. Proceeding. 13th International conference "Research and Development in Mechanical Industry". RaDMI. Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia, vol. 2, 2013, pp. 254-259. [15] Loshak, M.G. Prochnost' i dolgovechnost' tverdyh splavov. Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 1984, 328 p
    [4] Bataineh, O., Klamecki, В., Koepke, B.G.: Effect of pulsed magnetic treatment on drill wear. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2003, vol. 134, 2, pp. 190-196.

    Influence of the Heat Treatment Atmosphere on Coercivity of [FePt/Au/FePt]2x Thin Films
    Sergii Sidorenko1; S.M. Voloshko1; A.K. Orlov1; I.A. Vladymyrskyi1; K. Kato2; T. Ishikawa2;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 179
    Topic: 48

    FePt-based thin films are attractive materials for ultrahigh density magnetic recording application, due to their excellent magnetic properties [1-4]. However, for high coercivity provision, it is necessary to apply high temperature heat treatment to form ordered L10-FePt phase from initially disordered A1-FePt phase [5]. Particularly, it was determined that presence of H2 in inert annealing atmosphere leads to thermal stabilization of FePt films grains size and surface roughness [6].
    [FePt(15 nm)/Au(7,5 nm)/FePt(15 nm)]2x thin films were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering onto thermally oxidized Si(100) substrates at room temperature, using FePt alloy (99,95 %) and Au (99,9 %) targets. Post-annealing of the film samples in temperature range of 500°C - 800°C was carried out in flowing Ar and Ar + H2 (3 vol.%) atmospheres for 30 s, using a fixed heating rate of 10°C/s. Structural properties of the as deposited and post-annealed films were investigated by the grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) method [7]. Magnetic properties were measured by superconductive quantum interference device-vibrating sample magnetometry (SQUID-VSM).
    It was founded, that H2 introduction into annealing atmosphere allows to reach high coercivity (21 kOe) after annealing at 600°C. Hydrogen presence leads to residual oxygen reduction from the heat treatment atmosphere and as a result to ordering process suppression. It was concluded that chemical ordering, texture formation of ferromagnetic grains, and its size in our case are not determining factors for provision of coercivity high values, because these properties were almost equal after annealing in both investigated atmospheres. Hydrogen incorporation into Au crystal lattice can lead to breaking of interatomic bounds and point defects formation. This effect could be related to acceleration of Au grain boundary diffusion into L10-FePt phase under mechanical stresses influence.

    Keywords: High temperature/high pressure techniques; Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing; Powder production and processing; Shock treatment; Surface engineering/Wear, Non-conventional techniques;

    References: [1] S.B. Dalavi, R.N. Panda, Observation of high coercive fields in chemically synthesized coated Fe-Pt nanostructures, J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 428 (2017) 306-312.
    [2] P.O. Adelani, A.N. Duke, B.H. Zhou, J.D. Rinehart, Role of magnetic concentration in modulating the magnetic properties of ultra-small FePt nanoparticles, Inorganica Chim. Acta 460 (2017) 114-118.
    [3] H. Sepehri-Amin, H. Iwama, T. Ohkubo, T. Shima, K. Hono, Microstructure and in-plane component of L10-FePt films deposited on MgO and MgAl2O4 substrates, Scr. Mater. 130 (2017) 247-251.
    [4] M. Bi, X. Wang, H. Lu, L. Zhang, L. Deng, J. Xie, Thickness dependence of magnetization reversal mechanism in perpendicularly magnetized L10-FePt films, J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 428 (2017) 412-416.
    [5] J.E. Wittig, J. Bentley, L.F. Allard, In situ investigation of ordering phase transformations in FePt magnetic nanoparticles, Ultramicroscopy 176 (2017) 218-232.
    [6] I.A. Vladymyrskyi, M.V. Karpets, F. Ganss, G.L. Katona, D.L. Beke, S.I. Sidorenko, T. Nagata, T. Nabatame, T. Chikyow, G. Beddies, M. Albrecht, I.M. Makogon, Influence of the annealing atmosphere on the structural properties of FePt thin films, J. Appl. Phys. 114 (2013) 164314.
    [7] K. Kato, H. Tanaka, Visualizing charge densities and electrostatic potentials in materials by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, Adv. Phys. 1 (2016) 55-80.

    Magnetic Permeability Measurement Device Based on Hall Effect
    Spyridon Angelopoulos1; Giorgios Banis1; Xenia Vourna1; Aphrodite Ktena2; Panagiotis Tsarabaris1; Evangelos Hristoforou1; Athanasios G. Mamalis3;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 296
    Topic: 48

    A new, fully portable device is presented, which can be used to measure magnetic permeability and residual stress. The device is based on the use of a Hall sensor and a permanent magnet. The Hall sensor is placed at the edge of a yoke, and consists of two parallel ferromagnetic bars and a permanent magnet. As a result, its output voltage depends on the magnetic field that is produced by the magnet. If the yoke is placed near a ferromagnetic material under test, the Hall voltage output will change accordingly. The optimal placement of the Hall sensor was found through software simulations. The magnetic field measured by the Hall sensor can be correlated to the surface magnetic permeability and the residual stress tensor distribution of the ferromagnetic material under test. Calibration of the sensor was held, in order to provide accurate results. The constructed device includes the aforementioned sensing element, an Arduino-based microcontroller, an RF transmitter, a Bluetooth module, and a battery. The collected data is wirelessly transmitted to a receiving device, and consists of an Arduino-based microcontroller, an RF receiver, an LCD, and a battery. As a result, the output information can be viewed either on the dedicated device or on any other Bluetooth-compatible device (e.g. smartphone or tablet). The sensor is suitable for on-field measurements, as it is wireless, energy sufficient, robust, and conducts high-speed contactless measurements.

    Keywords: Electromagnetics; Magnetic sensors; Magnetic permeability; Hall effect; Non-destructive testing;

    Maxwell-Boltzmann Energetics-enabled Design of Ball Milled Reactive Fractal Materials
    Haris Doumanidis1;
    1NAZARBAYEV UNIVERSITY, Astana, Kazakhstan;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 53
    Topic: 48

    Ignitable reactive bimetallic nanostructured systems, such as Al-Ni multilayers, have been of recent importance for rapid thermal annealing and joining in microelectronics, self-heating materials, and biomedical analysis and drug delivery. Design of their self-propagating exothermic reaction (SPER) properties, such as ignition threshold, front velocity, enthalpic release and adiabatic temperature profile, through design of their fractal (Apollonian pack or Brownian network) structure calls for understanding of their fabrication processing conditions, such as surface impact and bulk deformation in ball milling (BM) of metal powders. However, theoretical and computational analysis of BM in the literature only addresses the kinematics of milling balls by computationally expensive discrete element methods (DEM) and empirical correlations. Recently, a numerical model of the structure-property connection in bimetallic layer SPER capturing the kinetics and dynamics of conduction, diffusion and reaction, as well as a predictive real-time simulation of the process-structure relation in BM multilayers based on Hertzian contact, Coulomb friction and Castiglianoa's deformation theorem of Lagrangian domain primitives has been introduced by the authors' team, offering valuable insights for design.
    This work elaborates on the theoretical underpinnings of the energetics in BM processing of multi-metallic powders into reactive multilayer material structures, based on statistical mechanics akin to the Brownian kinetics of ideal gases and solutions. Understanding of analogies and differences between kinetic theory and BM fabrication in thermomechanical equilibrium with the container, gravitational field and surface effects from atmosphere and process control agents, and impact coupling in milling ball and particulate interactions is specifically pursued. The theory leads to a Maxwell-Boltzmann probability density function for the collision velocity and energy spectra, along with a uniform distribution of BM impact directionality. This mono-parametric descriptive formulation is calibrated and validated by DEM and experimental data from the bibliography and laboratory tests, and is integrated with the full predictive model of process-structure mechanics above. Simulations of the stochastic multi-layer lamellar structure of bimetallic powders during the BM process are validated against scanning electron microscopy (SEM) sections of Al-Ni particulates in experimental low-energy ball milling, matching the fractal Hausdorff dimensions of the micrographs. This theory-based comprehensive computational tool of the full process-structure-property connection provides new understanding of the reactive materials and enables off-line design approaches for their structure along with real-time process control of BM.

    Keywords: Nanostructured materials; Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing;

    References: [1] Rebholz, C., Gunduz, I.E., Ando T. and Doumanidis, C.C., "Miniature Thermal Matches: From Nanoheaters to Reactive Fractals", Materials Research Express 2 (2015) 045009 (8 pages)
    [2] Doumanidis, C.C., Gunduz, I.E., Rebholz, C. and Doumanidis, C.C., "Real-time Computational Model of Ball-Milled Fractal Structures", ASME J. of Nanotechnology in Eng. & Med. (2015) doi:10.1115/1.4031276 (http://nanoengineeringmedical.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleid=2428190)
    [3] Doumanidis, C.C; Al Kaabi, H.A; Alzaabi, A.S.M; Gunduz, I.E; Rebholz, C; Doumanidis, C.C; "Brownian
    Kinetics of Ball Milling for Particulate Structural Modeling", Advanced Powder Techn. (submitted 2015)

    Modelling Shape Memory Effect in Hybrid Composite
    Lucas Vignoli1; Marcelo Amorim Savi1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 360
    Topic: 48

    Composite materials have been widely used in a large range of industrial applications, mainly because of their lightweight characteristics and high capability to increase strength and stiffness in certain directions, especially in unidirectional laminates. On the other hand, the unique thermomechanical behavior of Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) has a set of remarkable properties resulting from microscopic phase transformation, allowing the possibility to design new devices that consider pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME) [1,2]. In this study, a unidirectional composite made by SMA fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix is considered. Two different temperature cycles are modelled: first, the curing manufacture process is simulated [3], and then the applied temperature on the SMA fibers to induce the SME. The generalized plane strain state is assumed, and two approaches are used to model the interaction between fibers and matrix. A simplified 1D model, which considers fibers and matrix as springs in parallel, is introduced to evaluate the maximum recovery capability of the composite and a 2D equivalent cell model is used to represent a hexagonal array [4]. The Brinson constitutive model [5] and its modified version with the von Mises equivalent for general stress state [6,7] are applied for the SMA fibers, while the matrix is assumed linearly-elastic with properties defined as functions of the temperature. The maximum recoverable strain range is found to be function not only of the SMA maximum recoverable strain but also of the matrix and interface failures [8]. Results indicate a good correlation between both approaches, however the 2D model has the advantage to be able to computer interface stresses and nonuniform phase transformation. A comparison with the analytical single-fiber model is also carried out [9].

    Keywords: Composites;

    References: [1] D.D.A. Costa, M.A. Savi, (2017), "Nonlinear dynamics of an SMA-pendulum system", Nonlinear Dynamics, 87, 1617-1627. <br />[2] P.B.C., Leal, M.A. Savi, (2018), "Shape Memory Alloy-Based Mechanism for Aeronautical Application: Theory, Optimization and Experiment", Aerospace Science and Technology, 76, 155-163.<br />[3] J.B. Berman, S.R. White, (1996), "Theoretical modelling of residual and transformational stresses in SMA composites", 5, 731-743.<br />[4] A.B. Morais, (1996), "Modelling Lamina Longitudinal Compression Strength of Carbon Fibre Composite Laminates", Journal of Composite Materials, 30, 1115-1131.<br />[5] L.C. Brinson, (1993), "One dimensional constitutive behavior of shape memory alloys: themomechanical derivation with non-constant material functions and redefined martensite internal variable", Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 4, 229-242.<br />[6] D. Lagoudas, D. Hartl, Y. Chemisky, L. Machado, P. Popov, (2012), "Constitutive model for the numerical analysis of phase transformation in polycrystalline shape memory alloys", International Journal of Plasticity, 32, 155-183.<br />[7] S. Enemark, I.F. Santos, M.A. Savi, (2016), "Modelling, characterisation and uncertainties of stabilised pseudoelastic shape memory alloy helical springs", Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, 27, 2721-2743. <br />[8] Y. Huang, L. Xu, S.K. Ha, (2012), "Prediction of three-dimensional composite laminate response using micromechanics of failure", Journal of Composite Materials, 46, 2431-2442. <br />[9] Y. Wang, L. Zhou, Z. Wang, H. Huang, L. Ye, (2011), "Analysis of internal stresses induced by strain recovery in a single SMA fiber-matrix composite", Composites: Part B, 42, 1135-1143.

    Modern Protective Systems for Mitigating Explosions
    Nikoloz Chikhradze1; Edgar Mataradze2; Theodore Krauthammer3; Mikheil Chikhradze4;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 144
    Topic: 48

    The major disadvantages of the existing automatic systems of blast suppression are: the long length of response; an inadequate discharge of the blast absorbing agent required for reducing overpressure and temperature to an acceptable value; and the lack of reliability of a blast identification device in difficult conditions of underground openings, especially under long-term operation.
    Basic design requirements for the protective system are: short response time from the moment of explosion to the system activation; high reliability to rule out false activation and the possibility of failure to detect an explosion; high reduction of shock wave overpressures; capacity to extinguish secondary blasts and ensuing fires— system should remain active for a few minutes; it shall not interfere in the normal functioning of the tunnel and have an ability to adapt to the tunnel shape and size; the system components shall be strong enough to withstand all loads and high shock; low cost of production, installation, and performance monitoring.
    Subject to these requirements, a new blast protection system has been developed by the G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute and Center for Infrastructure Protection and Physical Security (CIPPS) within the frames of the NATO SPS programme, Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation (SRNSF) and International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) [1, 2, 3].
    The system consists of the following three sub-systems: i) a shock wave high-speed suppression section, in which high pressure is generated upon the initiation of the pyrotechnic gas generator; ii) a suppression section with a long-term action, in which high pressure is obtained by using a pump; iii) a system activating device. The system contains a wireless device for the detection of explosions. This paper presents the results of the testing of the Automatic Protecting System from explosion in an underground structure.

    Keywords: Defense; Explosives; Shock-waves loading;

    References: [1] E. Mataradze, N. Chikhradze, T. Krauthammer, GE P 2017, 6632 B
    [2] Edgar Mataradze, Nikoloz Chikhradze,2, Irakli Akhvlediani, Nika Bochorishvili1 and Ted Krauthammer, http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/44/5/052012/pdf
    [3] N. Chikhradze, E. Mataradze, M. Chikhradze, T. Krauthammer,IAPS, ISIEMS, Sixteenth International Symposium on the Interaction of the Effects of Munition with Structures, Destin, Florida USA, 9-13 November 2015

    Multiphysics Challenges in Industrial Applications
    Mojtaba Moatamedi1; Basem Alzahabi2;
    1UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER, Manchester, United Kingdom; 2AL GHURAIR UNIVERSITY, Dubai, United Arab Emirates;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 61
    Topic: 48

    Multiphysics simulation is a relatively new class of analysis in the field of engineering and science. Previously numerical modelling involving both fluid and structure was undertaken using two separate codes, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code for the fluid analysis and a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) code for the structural response. Recent advances in technology now enable the modelling of both fluid and structure within a single code, enabling a fully coupled analysis to be performed. This talk concentrates upon a number of applications concerned with the multiphysics modelling in real industrial problems involving new materials challenges. These problems include a series of experimental data and simulations such as Concorde accident investigation, airbag certification, nuclear incident and other complex investigations. Experimental verification and validation of the numerical codes is essential in such practical applications to reduce the cost and enhance safety in design and manufacturing. The comparison between experiment and numerical analysis will be discussed in the above-mentioned applications.

    Keywords: Mechanics;

    References: [1] Khawaja, H.A.; Messahel, R.; Ewan, B.; Souli, M.; Moatamedi, M., "Experimental and numerical study of pressure in a shock tube", Journal of Pressure vessel Technology, 138(4), (2016), 041301:1-6 <br />[2] Messahel, R.; Souli, M.; Cohen, B.; Moatamedi, M.; Aquelet, N., "Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Water Hammers in Nuclear Industry", The International Journal of Multiphysics, 9(1), (2015), 21-36<br />[3] Mughal, U.N.; Khawaja, H.; Moatamedi, M., "Finite Element Analysis of Human Femur Bone", The International Journal of Multiphysics, 9(2), (2015), 101-108<br />[4] Micallef, K.; Fallah, A.S.; Pope, D.J.; Moatamedi, M.; Louca, L.A., "On dimensionless loading parameters for close-in blasts", The International Journal of Multiphysics, 9(2), (2015), 171-193<br />[5] Moatamedi, M.; Souli, M.; Al-Bahkali, E., "Fluid Structure Modelling of Blood Flow in Vessels", MCB: Molecular and Cellular Biomechanics, 11(4), (2014), 221-234

    Nanaocomposites Based on Graphene/Polymer for 3D Printers
    Natia Jalagonia1; Nino Darakhvelidze2; Avtandil Sichinava2; Ekaterine Sanaia2; Marcello Casa3; Leila Kalatozishvili2;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 342
    Topic: 48

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is often considered synonymous with additive manufacturing. Several types of 3D printer are known where polymers are usually used. Stereolithography (SLA) employs a single beam laser to polymerize or crosslink a photopolymer resin. By drawing on the liquid photopolymer resin with a light beam, thin layers of polymer are stacked layer by layer. Elastomer based on polydimethysiloxanes (PDMS) are an important class of materials, because of properties such as chemical inertness, flexibility, and optical transparence. In addition, they have a very low surface tension (20.4 mN/m) and glass transition temperatures (146 K). it is possible to print a support material that holds the PDMS prepolymer in place until it can be cured by UV light using a photoactive cross-linking agent. It is possible to graft photoactive group on PDMS backbone and obtain a new UV curable polymer [1,2].
    The aim of the presented work is to obtain photopolymers based on PDMS [3]. For this purpose, we have conducted a hydrosilylation reaction of polymethylhydrosiloxane (PMHS) with allyl acrylate and vinyltriethoxysilane in the presence of Karstedta's catalyst in Toluene. The obtained polymer is liquid, which is well soluble in organic solvents with specific viscosity ηsp = 0.4. The end of reaction was tested by FTIR, where peak at 1260 cm-1 disappears, which belongs to Si-H bonds. After this the polymer is distilled in vacuum, about 1% of a cross-linking agent was added and curried by UV during 1 h.

    Keywords: Multifunctional materials; Polymers;

    References: [1] J. T. Sheridan, Photopolymers Materials (Light Sensitive Organic Materials): Characterization and Application to 3D Optical Fabrication and Data Storage. [Online] Available at: http://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/Photopolymers%20Materials_%20Characterization%20and %20Application%20to%203D%20Optical%20Fabrication%20and%20Data%20Stora ge.pdf. [Accessed: 07.10.2013].
    [2] B. Thavornyutikarn, R. Nonthabenjawan, P. Ngamdee, W. Janvikul. Synthesis, Characterization and Crosslinking of Dual-Curable Siloxane Copolymers. Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals. 18, 2, 213-218, 2008.
    [3] N. Jalagonia, I. Esartia, T. Tatrishvili, E. Markarashvili, J. Aneli, O. Mukbaniani. Siloxane matrix with methylpropionate side groups and polymer electrolyter membranes on their basis. Oxid. Commun., 39, 2, 1282-1292, 2016;

    Nano Thermometry: Origin, Evolution, and Emergence
    Pragati Kumar1; Nupur Saxena1; Tania Kalsi1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 247
    Topic: 48

    The physical entity that has an effect on even the tiniest elements of daily life and is involved in a broad spectrum of human activities is temperature. Accurate and reliable measurement of temperature with high spatial resolution of many special inaccessible objects is a challenging task. The conventional methods of temperature measurements are not companionable with the current nano/bio technologies, as they demand precise thermometry down to the nanoscale regime. Optical temperature sensing using nanomaterials is a promising method to achieve it. This is the only thermometry that works in non-contact mode and has high resolution and sensitivity. A range of versatile materials have been utilized to fabricate luminescence-based optical thermometers to achieve high sensitivity and wide working range. This review article focuses on the gradual advances in luminescence-based optical temperature sensors and highlights the wide range of materials used to fabricate them. The article covers the importance of temperature sensors and their applications, followed by the overview of various types of thermometry and their mode of operations with detailed description of optical thermometry, particularly luminescence based sensors. Later section deals with different detection modes for the analysis of the luminescent sensors. The subsequent section will discuss a number of materials and their structures used for fabrication of luminescence based temperature sensor; viz. (a) Metal Organic Frameworks, (b) Quantum Dots (QDs), (c) Rare Earth Doped Phosphors and (d) Nanocomposites. In all, the article compares different thermometers in the basis of mechanism, constituting materials, and their performance parameters. Among all the device parameters, sensitivity and temperature range are the most concerned issues. To the best of our knowledge, highly luminescent rare earth doped phosphors1 could achieve the maximum sensitivity as 7% K-1 and a temperature range of 20-500K. However, our group has reported a relative sensitivity of 8.4 K-1 and the widest temperature range of 20-560K using CdS:SiO2 nanocomposite2. Further improvement in these parameters by doping of Ag in CdS:SiO2 nanocomposite system will be discussed in this article. The review features a comprehensive summary on challenges and new direction in designing luminescence based temperature sensor.

    Keywords: Nanocomposites; Nanostructured materials; Semiconductors;

    References: [1] S. Huang, X. Wei, Y. Chen and M. Yin, J. Lumin., 2014, 152, 148.
    [2] N. Saxena, P. Kumar, and V. Gupta, RSC Advances, 2015, 5, 73545.

    Nanostructured Austempered Ductile Cast Iron (ADI)
    Susil Putatunda1; Saranya Pannerselvam1;
    1WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY, Detroit, United States;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 315
    Topic: 48

    Austempered Ductile Cast Iron (ADI) has emerged as an important engineering material in recent years, due to its excellent combination of mechanical properties such as high strength with good ductility, fatigue strength, fracture toughness, and excellent wear resistance. This combination of properties is achieved in ADI by the microstructure consisting of acicular ferrite and high carbon austenite. Refining of the ausferritic microstructure could further enhance the mechanical properties of ADI.
    An investigation was carried out to develop nanostructured austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) consisting of bainitic ferrite and high carbon austenite. This was achieved by applying a unique process consisting of austenitization and subsequent high temperature plastic deformation at the same austenitizing temperature, followed by single step and two step austempering. The influence of plastic deformation on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured ADI has been examined. Test results indicates that high temperature plastic deformation together with austempering can result in nanostructured grains in ADI. TEM micrograph was compared with conventional ADI, which provided a detailed insight of the nanostructured ADI.

    Keywords: Ferrous and non-ferrous materials; Metals; Nanoparticles; Nanostructured materials;

    References: [1] P.P. Rao and S.K. Putatunda, "Influence of microstructure on fracture toughness of austempered ductile iron" Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol 28A, pp. 1457-1470, (1997).
    [2] P.P. Rao and S.K. Putatunda, "Comparative study of fracture toughness of austempered ductile irons with upper and lower ausferrite microstructures", Material Science and Technology, Vol 14, pp.1257-1265, (1998).
    [3] J.L. Doong, F.C. Ju, H.S. Chen and L.W. Chen, "Influence of Austempering on Fracture Toughness in Bainitic Nodular Cast Iron", Journal of Materials Science Letters, pp. 555-558, (1986).
    [4] I. Schmidt, Z. Metallkd. Vol.75, pp.747-751, (1984).

    Nanotechnology and Sustainability
    Jeremy Ramsden1; Alexandra Mamali2; Athanasios G. Mamalis3; Nikolaos T. Athanassoulis4;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 94
    Topic: 48

    The sustainability of our present civilization and, ultimately, of human life itself is challenged on many fronts. The most prominent of the challenges are climate change, extreme food and water shortages, rising chronic diseases, and rampant obesity. They are all of great significance in terms of death and morbidity, and at the same time seemingly intractable. This paper looks at the technical dimension of overcoming these challenges, contrasting the apparent impotence of conventional technologies with the potential of nanotechnology. Particular attention is paid to the scalability of any proposed nanotechnology-based solutions (bearing in mind the vast scale required for meaningful implementation), as well as the related aspect of realizable timescales. Where alternative solutions exist, a criterion of choice based on the life quality index is proposed. The paper concludes by examining the practical problems of implementing solutions projected to be successful.

    Keywords: Energy; Environment; Nanocomposites; Nanoparticles; Nanostructured materials; Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing;

    References: [1] Ramsden, J.J. What is sustainability? Nanotechnol. Perceptions 6 (2010) 179-195.

    [2] Ramsden, J.J. The nanotechnology industry. Nanotechnol. Perceptions 9 (2013) 102-118.

    [3] Mamalis, A.G., Ramsden, J.J., Holt, G.C., Vortselas, A.K. and Mamali, A.A. The effect of nanotechnology on mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to climate change. Nanotechnol. Perceptions 7 (2011) 159-179.

    [4] Ramsden, J.J. Nanotechnology and Gaia. Nanotechnol. Perceptions 10 (2014) 173-189.

    [5] Ramsden, J.J. Doomsday scenarios: an appraisal. Nanotechnol. Perceptions 12 (2016) 35-46.

    [6] Ramsden, J.J. Applied Nanotechnology (3rd edn). Amsterdam: Elsevier (2018).

    Nanotechnology Enables Hot Gold Nanorods to Kill Cancer Cells and to Stop Live Cells from Migrating
    Mostafa A. El-Sayed1;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 12
    Topic: 48

    Cancer claims the lives many people after several years of suffering and after unsuccessfully using a great deal of different treatments, like surgery, chemical and/or radiation treatments. The field of nanotechnology showed us how different materials acquire so many different properties when their size is reduced to the nanometer scale. Gold nanoparticles having rod shape of nanometer size and a length/width ratio of 3:1 can absorb near infrared light (to which our body is transparent) and convert it into heat. If solution containing gold nanorods is injected into a cancer lump and exposed to near infrared light the hot solution (resulting from the gold nanorods upon absorbing the near infra-red light) melts the cancer cells leading to their death. This was demonstrated by our group in the photo-thermal destruction and destroying cancer cells in solution, in cancer lumps in small and in large animals. [1-4]
    Normally, some of the cancer cells that do not die are able to migrate to other parts of the body, away from the location of their initial formation spot, until they are located in a sensitive part of the body that leads to cancer patient death. This process in which cancer cells migrate is called metastasis.
    Very recently, however, we discovered [5] that in our photo-thermal treatment, while treating cancer cells in the first cancer location with hot gold nano-rods, the cancer cell's legs and arms and the motion proteins are photo-thermally destroyed. This makes it difficult for the cancer cells to migrate to new and more important functional locations in the body. This treatment is thus effective in stopping cancer cell migration through the patient body and increases the success rate of the patient recovery.

    Keywords: Biomedical engineering; Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing; Cancer treatment; Photothermal;

    References: [1] El-Sayed, I. H.; Huang, X.; El-Sayed, M. A. Cancer Lett. 2006, 239, (1), 129-135.
    [2] Dickerson, E. B.; Dreaden, E. C.; Huang, X.; El-Sayed, I. H.; Chu, H.; Pushpanketh, S.;
    McDonald, J. F.; El-Sayed, M. A. Cancer Lett. 2008, 269, (1), 57-66.
    [3] Rahman MR, Ali MRK, Zhao Z, Chen GZ, El-Sayed MA and Shin DM. CancerResearch 2016, 76, (14).
    [4] Ali MRK, Ibrahim IM, Ali HR, Selim SA, El-Sayed MA. International Journal of Nanomedicine 2016:11 1-15
    [5] Moustafa RK Ali, Yue Wu, Deepraj Ghosh, Brian H Do, Kuangcai Chen, Michelle R Dawson, Ning Fang, Todd A Sulchek, Mostafa A El-Sayed, Proc. National Academy of Science, 2017.,114 (28): E5655-E5663.

    New Designs of Rotors with Variable Geometry Parameters in Dynamics and Their Effective Use in Aviation and Wind Energy
    Raul S. Turmanidze1; Paata Kervalishvili1; Giorgi Popxadze1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 162
    Topic: 48

    Famous specialists of many leading scientific centers of the world unambiguously prove that, from the date of existence of airscrews, the problem of creating a design for screws with the possibility to change key geometrical parameters in dynamics is particularly acute. It stems from the fact that existing screws are not optimal for all operational phases of units with different functions. The solution to this problem is possible only by using screws of changeable geometry (SCG), which has the capability to simultaneously change the diameter of the screw and a corner of installation, and twist the blades in dynamics.
    As a result of production and tests for various designs of the screw's demonstration model with changeable geometrical parameters in dynamics, it was proven that, for example, for aircraft use the WHIG gives the chance of especially effective optimization of aircraft flight in vertical takeoff and landing (SVVP), ensuring the maximum diameter and the minimum twist in the hanging mode and vice versa, the minimum diameter and the maximum twist at horizontal flight. In particular, at a variation of diameter of trial model of a rotor, for example, from - 4,1 to - 5,6 m and twists of blades within 80-300 it is possible to increase aircraft loading capacity on average 1.6 times, or to increase flight speed 1.4 times, or respectively to reduce fuel consumption.
    For wind power installations, especially with big capacities, use of the WHIG will give the chance to expand the range of the maximum efficiency values of installation at changes of wind speed in a wide range from 3 to 20-22 m/s, and also provide installation operability at high wind speeds of 22-35 m/s), at which the existing installations would not be in a functional state. The solution of this problem became particularly salient because of the infamous accident in Fukushima, Japan. These events compelled leaders from major countries of the world to find as many opportunities as possible to replace a share of atomic energy with other types in the overall power balance.
    Unfortunately, methods that are more effective than wind power in terms of economic and ecological criteria, and potentially mastered volume of energy, do not exist.
    Preliminary aerodynamic and economic calculations carried out, by means of the design developed by us, proved that it is possible to increase the annual volume of each wind turbine's energy by a minimum of 100%.
    In the presented work, different options for the rotor designs developed by us, with the indication of their advantages to each case will be analyzed. Further, on the basis of the results from aerodynamic tests of working models that were carried out, recommendations for effective use of each option in these or those concrete branches of equipment, are given.
    Additionally, the method of accumulation for the received wind and solar energy, which is very effective at prime cost, is an pressing world problem for which there is development costing some hundreds of millions of US dollars annually, will be offered and analyzed.
    The proposal refers to those countries that have hydroelectric power plants with medium and large capacities— for instance where there are already high dams and reservoirs built .
    The core of our proposal is that it is possible to mount the greatest possible number of wind stations and solar panels around a reservoir. When there is an order for electric energy they will work for its production, and when orders are not present, they will work for water pumping back from the lower reservoir in its top part. It will give the opportunity to have all power sources working constantly for profit, day and night, day after day, and all the year round. A very effective method of location and operation of solar modules will also be elaborated and presented.
    The proposed method of accumulation of wind and solar energy gives an opportunity for effective operation of wind and solar stations, the repeated use of accumulated water and, most importantly, fundamentally changing the principle of projecting and constructing of hydroelectric power stations of medium and large capacities. In addition it is necessary to underline the increase of the safety of hydroelectric stations, the reduction in the flooding of the country's cultural values and decrease area of the mirror surface of the reservoir, which adversely affects the changing climatic conditions of this region.

    Keywords: Alternative energy sources; Energy; Energy efficiency; Environment; New and advanced technology; Renewable energy; storage and use;

    References: [1] R.Turmanidze, L.Dadone. "Variable Geometry Rotor". Monograph, Publishing House of University of Petrosani. 2003, Romania, 164 p.
    [2] R.Turmanidze, L.Dadone, G.Sanadze. Increase of Flight and Technical Characteristics of Flying Vehicles By Means of Application of the Variable Geometry Rotor. Materials of the 5th Forum of the Russian Helicopter Society. Moscow, 2002. p. VI39-VI48. AGARD. 1998. A selection of test cases for the validation of large eddy simulations of turbulent flows. Agard Advisory Report 345. North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
    [3] R.Turmanidze, L.Dadone, J.-J.Philippe, B.Demaret, Investigation, Development and Tests Results of the Variable Geometry Rotor. 33 rd. European Rotorcraft Forum. Kazan, 10-14 September 2007, Pages 11.
    [4] R.Turmanidze, О.Rukhadze, R.Bidzinashvili, Е.Rukhadze, Designing Fundamentals of Investigation Equipment of Rotors with the Parameters of Variable Geometry. International Scientific Journal "Problems of Mechanics". 1 (42)/2011. Georgia, Tbilisi. 2011. 8 p.
    [5] R.Turmanidze, О.Rukhadze, R.Bidzinashvili, Е.Rukhadze, Investigation of the Variable Geometry Rotor in Dynamics. International Scientific Journal "Problems of Mechanics". 2(43)/2011. Georgia, Tbilisi, 2011. 8 p.

    Numerical Investigation of a Nonsmooth Rotor-stator System Considering a Shape Memory Alloy Coated Stator
    Alberto Paiva1; Rodrigo Veronese Moreira1; Alex Brandão1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 356
    Topic: 48

    Rotating systems have been a subject of great relevance since the first industrial revolution, when the first rotating machines started to appear. Since then, several dynamical models have been proposed to describe the behavior of such systems. In the early 19th century, the first rotor models did not consider any interaction with adjacent parts [1] but, as more complete models were developed and solved by numerical methods, nonlinear behavior and chaotic responses were observed as a result from contact and friction between the rotating and stationary parts of the system [2]. The contact phenomenon is still a challenging topic; therefore, recent authors are still interested in its effects considering different approaches [3-5]. Recently, with the increasing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) exploration [6], a new branch of nonlinear dynamic systems have arisen [7], including nonsmooth systems [8] and rotordynamics applications [9].
    This work deals with the numerical simulation of a planar rotor-stator model based on the Jeffcott rotor with four degrees of freedom, namely: two of them related to the rotor, while the other two refer to the surrounding bearing (or stator). The bearing inner surface is subjected to contact and friction and is coated with an SMA layer, whose behavior is described by a first-order phase transition polynomial constitutive model [10].
    The SMA layer thermomechanical behavior influences the contact forces between rotor and stator, as its temperature is subjected to two competing phenomena: heating from friction during impact and cooling from convection caused by the interaction with the nearby environment.
    The nonlinear system characteristics result from both the intermittent contact possibility and the nonlinear temperature-dependent SMA layer behavior. Such features lead to a vast richness of dynamical behavior, including chaotic responses. The numerical results analyze the dynamical response of the SMA rotor-stator system and investigate the influence of the convective coefficient over the system dynamics.

    Keywords: Mechanics;

    References: [1] Jeffcott, H.H. (1919) The Lateral Vibration of Loaded Shafts in the Neighbourhood of a Whirling Speed: The Effect of Want of Balance. Philosophical Magazine 37, p. 304-315.<br />[2] Muszynska, A., Goldman, P. (1995) Chaotic Responses of Unbalanced Rotor/Bearing/Stator Systems with Looseness or Rubs. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 5 (9), p. 1683-1704.<br />[3] Edwards, S., Lees, A.W., Friswell, M.I. (1999) The influence of Torsion on Rotor/Stator Contact in Rotating Machinery. Journal of Sound and Vibration 225(4), p. 767-778.<br />[4] Popprath, S., Ecker, H. (2007) Nonlinear Dynamics of a Rotor Contacting an Elastically Suspended Stator. Journal of Sound and Vibration 308, p. 767-784.<br />[5] Fonseca, C.A.L.L., Aguiar, R.R., Weber, H.I. (2016) On the Non-Linear Behaviour and Orbit Patterns of Rotor/Stator Contact with a Non-Conventional Containment Bearing. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 105, p. 117-125.<br />[6] Cisse, C., Zaki, W., Zineb, T.B. (2016). A Review of Constitutive Models and Modeling Techniques for Shape Memory Alloys. International Journal of Plasticity 76; p. 244-284.<br />[7] Savi, M.A. (2015) Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Shape Memory Alloy Systems. International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 70, p. 2-19.<br />[8] Sitnikova, E., Pavlovskaia, E., Wiercigroch, M., Savi, M.A. (2010) Vibration Reduction of the Impact System by an SMA Restraint: Numerical Analysis. International Journal of Nonlinear Mechanics 45(9), p. 837-849.<br />[9] Silva, L.C., Savi, M.A., Paiva, A. (2013) Nonlinear Dynamics of a Rotordynamic Nonsmooth Shape Memory Allow System. Journal of Sound and Vibration 332, p. 608-621.<br />[10] Falk, F. (1983) One-Dimensional Model of Shape Memory Alloys. Archives of Mechanics 35, p. 63-84.

    On Ballistics of Damaging Fragmentation Elements
    Aram Baghiyan1;
    1IMPROVIS LLC, ARMENIA, Yerevan, Armenia;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 85
    Topic: 48

    This paper considers the parameters of motion of the damaging fragmentation elements of an arbitrary shape. The impact velocity of the damaging fragmentation elements is critical for assessing the effectiveness of the ammunition use. The distance from the explosion point at which the fragmentation element still retains damaging properties is also an important factor for estimating the safety of ammunition application as well as effectiveness.
    The determination of those two factors demands the analysis of the ballistics of damaging fragmentation elements. The core element affecting the velocity and range of flight of fragmentation elements is their drag coefficient.
    There is an approach [1] that is widely used for the consideration of aerodynamic coefficients related to the Reynolds number. However, for the velocities at which the fragmentation elements have damaging properties, the approach mentioned above can provide less important data than the consideration of aerodynamic coefficients related to the Mach number.
    In the literature [2-6] there are many papers providing several mathematical descriptions on the relation of drag coefficient of the spherical fragmentation elements to the Mach number, however these functions include physically unexplained gap points. The paper [7] provides the table data on the relation mentioned above, and its precise mathematical description is provided in the paper [8]. Generally, the relation of drag coefficient of fragmentation elements to the Mach number is a stochastic function. This paper provides an analysis of this stochastic function based on the experimental data from [9]. The standard deviation measures of the drag coefficients of fragmentation elements of an arbitrary shape show that for more accurate estimations in future experiments, drag coefficient data collection needs the grouping of fragmentation elements by masses and sizes.

    Keywords: Ballistics and projectiles; Defense; Hypervelocity impact; Mechanics; Safety;

    References: [1] Drela M. Flight Vehicle Aerodynamics. The MIT Press, 2014. - 304 p.
    [2] Miropolskiy F.P., Sarkisyan R.S., Vishnyakov O.L., Popov A.M. Aircraft ammunition and their research. Moscow: Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy, 1978 - 528 p.
    [3] Balaganskiy I.A., Merzhievskiy L.A. Effects of ammunition and means of destruction. Novosibirsk: Novosibirsk State Technical University, 2004 - 408 p.
    [4] Means of Destruction and Ammunition. Ed. Selivanov V.V. Moscow: Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2008 - 984 p.
    [5] Physics of the explosion. Ed. Orlenko L.P. In 2 volumes, Vol. 2. Moscow: Fizmatlit,
    2004 - 656 p.
    [6] Ammunition. Ed. Selivanov V.V. In 2 volumes, Vol. 1. Moscow: Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2016 - 512 p.
    [7] Krasilshchikov A.R., Podobin V.P. Experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a sphere in free flight with the Mach numbers up to M = 15 // Mechanics of liquid and gas, 1968, No 4, pp. 190-193.
    [8] Baghiyan A.H., Skrynnikov A.A., Voronko O.V., Dorofeyev V.A., Pominov V.N. Analitic Representation of Drag Coefficient of Fragmentation Elements // Ammunition, 2007, No. 1, pp. 15-17.
    [9] Wentzel E.S. Thesis for the degree of Doctor of Technical Sciences. Several issues of the effectiveness of air firing by remote shells to the airplanes. Moscow: Zhukovsky Air Force Engineering Academy, 1953 - 219 p.

    Parameters Optimization of Rotary Forming Process of Nickel Superalloy Metal Plates
    Sandra Puchlerska1; Krzysztof Zaba1; Tomasz Pieja2; Jaroslaw Pyzik3;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 268
    Topic: 48

    Nickel-based superalloys can be characterized by resistance to high-temperature corrosion and high-temperature creep resistance. For this reason, they are widely used in the production of jet engine critical parts. One of the commonly used materials is Inconel 625, which will be the subject of this research. For Inconel 625 processing, rotary forming can be applied, which results in axially symmetrical elements. An important property of Inconel 625 is strong strain hardening effect. To improve formability, variety of methods can be applied, including heating of the material. The purpose of the research was optimization of rotary forming process parameters of Inconel 625 to produce jet engine critical parts with high quality requirements. Experimental plans based on orthogonal two-level design was created for 3 selected variables - feed rate, spinning rate, and heating. Optimal process parameters were established using multivariate statistical optimization utilizing GridSearch algorithm for finding set of parameters maximizing general product quality, defined as function of several quality factors measures. These parameters were used to set up processes and obtain product that meet quality requirements.

    Keywords: Ferrous and non-ferrous materials; Metal forming; Metals;

    References: [1] Superalloys II, C. T. Sims, N. S. Stoloff, W. C. Hagel, Wiley, 1987<br />[2] A review of spinning, shear forming and flow forming processes, C. C. Wong, T. A. Dean, J. Lin, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 1419-1435<br />[3] Optimisation of the shear forming process by means of multivariate statistical methods, J. Kunert, R. <br />Ewers, M. Kleiner, N. Henkenjohann, C. Auer, Technical Report / UniversitA�t Dortmund, SFB 475 KomplexitA�tsreduktion in Multivariaten Datenstrukturen, No. 2005, 23.

    Perspective Ways for the Development of Endoprosthesis of Human Hip Implants
    Sergiy Sheykin1; Athanasios G. Mamalis2; Raul S. Turmanidze3; S. Sohan4; I. Rostotskiy4; Dmitrii Vladimirovich Efrosinin5;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 174
    Topic: 48

    Nowadays, the greatest spread in the practice of endoprosthesis replacement was obtained by a metal/UHMWPE (Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene) friction pair. As a rule, in this case a CoCrMo alloy is used as the material of the metal component. However, from the point of view of biocompatibility, this alloy is not the best. Among the metals and alloys in this indicator, pure titanium is the best choice. Nevertheless, its usage as a component of the friction pair is hampered by the increased tendency to seize with structural materials (including the UHMWPE) and low mechanical characteristics.
    To receive the needed level of operating specifications of friction pair, pure titanium/UHMWPE, the technology for modifying the surface layer of the spherical head by surface plastic deformation and subsequent thermal diffusion nitriding was elaborated. This technology made it possible to achieve an optimal combination of strength and adhesive inertness of the working surface of the titanium head [1]. The technology for shaping the working surface of a spherical head was developed, including preliminary precision and finishing. The technologists use tools used at the Institute of Superhard Materials. The technology made it possible to obtain a product conforming to the international standard ISO 7206-2-2013 (Ra <0.05 mm with deviation from non-circularity less than 0.006 mm). Comparative tests of nitrided pure titanium and CoCrMo alloy in pair with the surgeon performed on the ring-plane face friction machine in blood plasma (closest in composition to the synovial fluid of the natural joint) showed a clear advantage of nitrided pure titanium: friction in a pair of nitrided Grade 2 / surgical below by 25%, linear wear by 60%.
    A promising alternative to the evolutionary development of the traditional endoprosthesis of the femoral head is also considered a fundamentally different technological solution— hybrid endoprosthesis of the femur head with a heart of metal and an outer layer of oxide ceramics [2]. This idea is implemented, for example, in the product with the commercial brand Oxinium™ (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, US).
    The idea of a multilayer endoprosthesis of the femoral head was suggested by the authors in [3]. The outer part in the form of a spherical shell of artificial sapphire or ZrO2-ceramics has a cavity filled through a special heat-conducting technological layer in several layers by a metal core. In the metal core, there is a tapered hole for fixing the head. Due to the use of sapphire (it does not have harmful impurities in the interstitial space), such endoprosthesis is chemically inert, is electrically neutral, has an increased wettability of the surface, and has biological compatibility (activity). An additional advantage of this technical solution is the possibility of introducing a layer of polymer material that improves the damping properties of the endoprosthesis.

    Keywords: Ceramic; Materials; Mechanical; Metal; Optimization; Polymer; Processing; Technology;

    References: [1] Increasing of functionality of c.p. titanium/UHMWPE tribo-pairs by thermodiffusion nitriding of titanium component / I.M. Pohrelyuk, S.E. Sheykin, S.M. Dub, A.G. Mamalis, I.Yu. Rostotskii, O.V. Tkachuk, S.M. Lavrys // Biotribology Volume 7, September 2016, Pages 38-45.
    [2] Pezzotti, G. Artificial hip joints: The biomaterials challenge / G. Pezzotti, K. Yamamoto / J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mat. 3 1 (2014) 3-20.
    [3] Спосіб виготовлення головки ендопротеза кульшового суглобу: пат. 105064 U Україна МПК А61F2/32 (2006.1) / С.В. Сохань, Л.Ф. Головко, Н.О. Мельник-Кагляк, 201503079; заявл. 03.04.2015; опублік. 10.03.2016, Бюл. 5-3 с.

    Plasmon Spectroscopy of the Transition Metal Films Surface
    Sergii Sidorenko1; M.A. Vasylyev2; S.M. Voloshko1; V.V. Yanchuk1; O.I. Kruglov1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 177
    Topic: 48

    Plasmon spectroscopy for the first time was used to analyze the surface of the nanosized transition metal films [1]. Multilayer Ni/Cu/Cr and Ni/Cu/V systems with a thickness of 25 nm layers, obtained by electron-beam deposition in a super-high vacuum of 10-7 Pa, were studied. The samples were irradiated with Ar+ ions with a current density of 5 µA/cm2 and an energy of 600 eV at doses of 2-1017 and 12-1017 ions/cm2 and maintained in an atmosphere of atomic oxygen for 24 hours at 6-10-8 Pa in the electron spectrometry.
    The averaged values of the energy of the surface (Es) and bulk (Eb) plasmons, the concentration of the conduction electrons involved in plasma oscillations, as well as the relative changes of the interplanar distances, are calculated [2]. The low-energy ion effects greatly improve the physico-chemical state of the sample's surface, since Es increases with increasing Eb. At the same time, the conduction electrons concentration is noticeably reduced due to the formation of radiation defects of the vacancy type and the static relaxation of the type of "expansion" of the interplanar distances. Exposure in oxygen after ion bombardment reduces the indicated changes in the concentration of conduction electrons and reduces the manifestation of the effect of surface relaxation by ~6 times.
    Replacing the "lower" layer of Cr with the layer V in a three-layer system affects the results of quantitative analysis of the plasmon spectra of the "upper" Ni layer. This necessitates the consideration of the long-range effects of the transition metal layers that are applied to the substrate, for example, to improve adhesion (usually Cr or V), when interpreting the results of the plasmon spectroscopy of the nanosized film surfaces.
    The difference between the experimental data obtained from the theory of free electron gas, which is confirmed for massive samples of transition metals, can be caused by several reasons: the participation of not all valence electrons in collective vibrations; the influence on the energy of the plasmons by interband transitions; as well as the actual physical and chemical state of the film material surface [3].

    Keywords: Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing; Surface engineering/Wear, Non-conventional techniques;

    References: [1] V.A. Tinkov, M.A. Vasylyev, G.G. Galstyan, Vacuum 85 (2011) 677-686.
    [2] Y. Wu, G. Li, J.P. Camden, Chem. Rev. 10 (2017) 124-131.
    [3] Y. Fujiyoshi, T. Nemoto, H. Kurata, Ultramicroscopy 175 (2017) 116-120.

    Prediction of Suitable Material for Ag/Me/Graphene Interface as Front Contact for Solar Cells
    Sergii Sidorenko1; Weiping Gong2; Zhaohui Guo2; Weidong Xie2; Min Liu2; S. Konorev1; M. Fedorov1; S.M. Voloshko1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 181
    Topic: 48

    One of the main problems of solar cells with Si working area and Ag front contact grid is contact degradation, because Ag has high diffusivity, which is also enhanced by the electric current [1]. Through time, electrical resistivity of such contact interface grows, resulting in low conversion efficiency.
    New generation contacts include coating of silver grid with diffusion barrier material (Me) and covering the surface with Graphene monolayer (G) to overcome presumable lowering of contact conductivity.
    In order to design a new generation of contacts, it is necessary to investigate the properties of Ag/Me and Me/G interfaces. In previous works, the diffusion properties of coatings were investigated in order to find the diffusion barrier for Ag. The aim of the current work is to investigate the electrical resistivity of Ag/Me interface. Simulations were conducted in Abinit software using the LDA Troullier-Martins pseudopotentials and PAW pseudopotentials. FCC lattice structure was chosen for all materials despite their stable lattice, representing the epitaxial growth of coating on the Ag conductive grid. Other important material properties were analyzed in literature [2, 3] and the combination of best properties resulted in the ideal material for applications in solar cell contacts coating.

    Keywords: Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing; Solar cells; Surface engineering/Wear, Non-conventional techniques;

    References: [1] A. R. Jha, Solar Cell Technology and Applications, CRC Press, 2009, ISBN 1420081780, 9781420081787
    [2] http://eddy-current.com/conductivity-of-metals-sorted-by-resistivity/
    [3] Nakada K., Ishii A. DFT calculation for adatom adsorption on graphene. INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2011.

    Preparation of Graphene Nanosheets by Shock Waves
    Pengwan Chen1; Xin Gao1; Hao Yin2; Chunxiao Xu1; Qiang Zhou1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 159
    Topic: 48

    Shock wave action of high temperature, high pressure and high strain rate lasting for very short time (~10-6 s) will cause a series of catastrophic changes of material chemical and physical properties, and herein both detonation-driven high velocity flyer impact loading and electrical explosion technique were employed to induce shock wave for the synthesis of high-quality graphene materials. Using solid CO2 (dry ice) as the carbon source [1], few layer graphene nanosheets were successfully synthesized by reduction of CO2 with calcium hydride through detonation-driven flyer impact. Furthermore, by adding ammonium nitrate to the reaction system, nitrogen-doped graphene materials were formed in this one-step shock-wave treatment. Similarly, a few layers of graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene materials were also prepared through the reaction of calcium carbonate and magnesium [2], and the shock pressure and temperature are two important factors affecting the synthesis of few layer graphene nanosheets. Besides that, electrical explosion exfoliation of crystalline flake graphite suspension was achieved to synthesize graphene sheets. Meanwhile, graphite nanosheets, few-layer graphene, and especially, mono-layer graphene with good crystallinity were also produced by electrical explosion of high-purity graphite sticks in distilled water at room temperature [3]. Delicate control of energy injection is critical for graphene nanosheets formation, whereas mono-layer graphene was produced under the charging voltage of 22.5-23.5 kV. The recovered samples were characterized using various techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Therein, the nitrogen-doped graphene was demonstrated to act as a metal-free electrode with an efficient electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solution. This work provides a simple but innovative route for producing graphene nanosheets.

    Keywords: Nanoparticles; Shock treatment;

    References: [1] P. Chen, C. Xu, H. Yin, X. Gao, L. Qu, Carbon 115 (2017) 471-476.
    [2] H. Yin, P. Chen, C. Xu, X. Gao, Q. Zhou, Y. Zhao, L. Qu, Carbon 94 (2015) 928-935.
    [3] X. Gao, C. Xu, H. Yin, X. Wang, Q. Song, P. Chen, Nanoscale 9 (2017) 10639-10646.

    Properties of the Composite SnO2-Ag (Semiconductor Metal) Ceramic Material
    Vladimir Kirko1; Sergey Dobrosmislov2; Genadii Nagibin2; Z.I. Popov3;
    1RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS AND ENGINEERING, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation; 2ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation; 3SIBERIAN STATE AEROSPACE UNIVERSITY, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 66
    Topic: 48

    The SnO2-based ceramics are being widely used in many industries. Tin dioxide is a semiconductor with the forbidden band energy 3.54 eV, and has unique properties of high electrical conductivity and chemical resistance. Chemically resistant ceramics with high electrical conductivity is of great interest as electrode material operating at high temperatures, for instance in aluminium electrolysis and glass production.
    In semiconductors, the total electric current is a sum of partial currents, provided by p- and n-type conductivities. In case of contact between a p-type semiconductor and a metal, a space charge region of ionized donors appears, and the blocking contact, or Schottky barrier, forms.
    This means that the addition of Ag superdispersed particles into the ceramics structure will allow an additional number of charge carriers to appear in the semiconductor-metal contact zone, that will increase the electrical conductivity.
    Following the research performed, the superdispersed silver particles significantly affect the electrical conductivity of the material. Firstly, a significant drop of the temperature of the percolation beginning is observed. Secondly, the shape of the curve suggests that there is a possibility of the electron passage from the metallic particles into the tin dioxide conduction band. It can also be noted that when the silver portion increases, saturation of the conduction band by charge carriers takes place, and the resistivity no longer depends on the silver concentration.
    The usage of the silver oxide additives when making SnO2-based ceramics allows the composite material resistivity to significantly decrease, especially at low temperatures, which is associated with silver reduction from its oxide. This effect is associated with the formation of the space charge region in the semiconductor-metal contact zone.
    Temperature dependencies of the resistivity for materials with 4 and 8 weight % of silver and sintered at 1300°С are practically the same. For the ceramics sintered at 1400°С, an obvious dependence of the resistivity on the concentration is observed. The percolation beginning temperature increases by 150°С compared to that of the material sintered at 1300°С. The sintering temperature increase may lead to silver particles being distributed more uniformly along the grains' boundaries.

    Keywords: Ceramic; Composites; Electrical; Mechanical; Silver;

    References: [1] Jinhuat L. H2S Detection sensing characteristic of CuO/SnO2 sensor / Jinhuat Liu, Xingjiu Huang, Gang Ye, Wei Lui, Zheng Jiao, Wanglian Chao, Zhongbai Zhou, Zengliang Yu // sensor 2003,3,110-118 p
    [2] S. S. Dobrosmislov, Issledovanie fisiko-mehanicheskih i electrofisicheskih svoystv electroprovodyashih ogneupornih keramik na osnove SnO-Sb2O3-CuO / S. S.Dobrosmislov, V.I. Kirko, etc., Ogneupori i tehnicheskaya keramika, 6, 7-10 pp., 2010;

    Reduction of Transport Impact on Air Quality due to New Conception of Hydrogen Storage
    Tetiana Prikhna1; Mykola Monastyrov2; Petro Talanchuk3; Athanasios G. Mamalis4; Fernand Marquis5; Bernd Halbedel6;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 140
    Topic: 48

    The new conception of hydrogen production on the board of transport vehicles was due to the reaction of metallic Al powder produced by the developed high productive electroerosion dispersion (EED) method with slightly alkaline water [1]. The developed EED method allows production of Al powder of 98% purity with spherical shape 0.05 - 3-5 microns particles (with near 8 vol.% of 0.05-0.1 microns particles), specific surface up to 120 m2/gr (determined in accordance with the ISO 10076). The poly-dispersed nature of the Al powder permits its dense packing qua PAS. The presence of a nanofraction enables a short reaction induction period. It is mainly due to the presence of nanoparticles that the reaction response time is lowered from 7 to 2 s, which in the case of a transport vehicle will enable the essential volume minimization of the intermediate container. As a result of the reaction of one kilogram of aluminum powder, more than 111 grams of hydrogen are released, which is equivalent to 1.23 m3 of gaseous hydrogen (taking the hydrogen density to be 0.09 kg/m3 at 18°C and 0.1 MPa). The packed density of the aluminium powder was determined with the help of a Scott volumeter according to ISO 3923-2, and was found to be 1240 kg/m3. From a volume of one litre filled with this powder, 1.52 m3 of gaseous hydrogen can be obtained.
    Further, the systematic approach to reduce heat dissipation and increase efficiency will be realized due to the use of advanced thermoelectrical transformation systems and new type of propulsion engine.

    Keywords: Energy; Environment; Nanoparticles; Powder production and processing; Transport/Crashworthiness of Vehicles;

    References: [1] M. Monastyrov, T. Prikhna, A. G. Mamalis, W. Gawalek, P. M. Talanchuk, R. V. Shekera, Electroerosion dispersion-prepared nano- and submicrometre-sized aluminium and alumina powders as power-accumulating substances, Nanotechnology Perceptions. 4 (2008), 179-187

    Relationship Between Hardness and Capillary Action-like Phenomena of Nickel Metal Observed in TiB2+TiN/TiNi/Steel-layered Composites Fabricated by Hot Explosive Welding
    Ryuichi Tomoshige1; Seiichiro Ii2; Yasuhiro Morizono3; Kanako Sonoda1;
    Type of Paper: Invited
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 68
    Topic: 48

    Our research group has developed a novel welding method that is capable of bonding ceramics, intermetallics, and metal. The welding method is composed of both combustion synthesis and explosive welding. That is, explosive welding is performed just after finishing combustion synthesis of ceramics (for example, TiB2 or TiC+Al2O3) and intermetallics (for example, TiNi) on a metal plate. Here, combustion synthesis generates high temperature of around several thousand degrees Celsius due to their exothermic reaction.
    We have reported that fabricated layered-composites were well-joined among TiB2 ceramics, TiNi intermetallics, and metal layers, and performed well in resistant-to-thermal shock tests. This is tested by heating the layered material to 550°C and then rapidly cooling it by dropping it into water, due to their high joining strength and pseudo-elastic effect of TiNi layer [1].
    In this study, we have fabricated another layered-composite system, that is TiB2+TiN/TiNi/steel, by the hot explosive welding technique, and have observed interlayer structures of the obtained layered-composite, especially between ceramics and intermetallics, with electron microscopes. As a result, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that TiB2 and TiN crystal grains in ceramic layer closely bonded each other. According to observations with transmission electron microscope (TEM), they showed a characteristic crystal orientation relationship, i.e. Blackburn orientation relationship, which is the same as the matter we have revealed it previously in TiB2+TiN composites prepared by hot dynamic compaction technique [2]. Further detailed scanning TEM (STEM) observations and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) revealed a component of nickel infiltrated from TiNi layer to intergranular regions of TiB2+TiN ceramic layer, which seemed like the capillary action. It was speculated that the phenomena must have generated after finishing the combustion synthesis of ceramic layer, because TiB2 and TiN phases in the ceramics layer has completely formed. Also, this phenomenon resulted in a decrease in Vickers hardness value in the ceramics layer (around 10 GPa), even though TiB2 and TiN phases have essentially hardness values of about 33 and 20 GPa, respectively. Here, it is well-known that mechanical properties, including the hardness values, are affected by an aspect of grain boundaries. Therefore, the decrease in hardness must have been caused by the decrease in intergranular bonding strength, as a consequence of the infiltration of metal nickel into boundaries between TiB2 and TiN grains.

    Keywords: Ceramics; Composites; Explosives; Metal forming; Shock-waves loading;

    References: [1] R. Tomoshige, S. Ii, and Y. Morizono, 2017 SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING SUMMIT AND EXHIBITION, Vol. 5: Marquis Intl. Symp. / New and Advanced Materials & Technologies for Energy, Environment, and Sustainable Development, pp410-417, (2017).
    [2] S. Ii, T. Nishitani, and R. Tomoshige, Materials Science Forum, 561-565, pp.2481-2484 (2007)

    Simulation of the Seismic Performance of Ceiling-Piping-Partition Nonstructural Systems
    Manos Maragakis1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, RENO, Reno, United States;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 280
    Topic: 48

    Nonstructural components and systems are defined as the elements of a building that are not part of its structural load-bearing system. However, these elements are subjected to the same dynamic environment experienced by the building caused by an earthquake. These systems represent over 75% of the loss exposure of US buildings to earthquakes, as they usually represent the major portion of the total investment in buildings. Furthermore, damage to nonstructural systems occurs at response intensities much lower than those required to produce structural damage. Therefore, it is not surprising that recent earthquakes have demonstrated that poor performance of nonstructural systems and components can result in significant damage. In the US they account for over 78% of the total estimated national annualized earthquake loss.
    One of the major nonstructural systems in a building is the ceiling-piping-partition nonstructural system, which includes a key set of interconnected subsystems. These include different types of ceiling subsystems; complex floor-to-floor, in-floor, and in-ceiling water distribution piping subsystems with varying geometric configurations; specialized piping such as fire sprinkler subsystems; different types of partition subsystems; components such as pipe fittings, light fixtures, hangers, braces, valves and pumps; and HVAC components that affect the seismic response of ceiling-piping partition systems such as diffusers and ducts. The ceiling-piping-partition system is a very widely used nonstructural system that has been a main contributor to both seismic damage and associated property damage, functional loss, fire spread and hence casualty risks. All of its subsystems (i.e. piping, partitions and ceilings) have suffered significant damage in recent earthquakes. Such damage has resulted in property loss, loss of function, increased fire hazard and loss of life and has compromised the seismic resilience of communities.
    This presentation summarizes damage of nonstructural systems in recent earthquakes and its impact on all categories of seismic risk and discusses the importance of these elements on the functionality of buildings. Furthermore, it presents major experimental and analytical research studies on the seismic response of these elements that were performed as part of an NSF NEESR Grand Challenge research project on this topic. This Grand Challenge project integrated multidisciplinary system-level studies that developed, for the first time, a simulation capability and implementation process for enhancing the seismic performance of the ceiling-piping-partition nonstructural system. It included a comprehensive experimental program that used the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and University at Buffalo (UB) NEES Equipment Sites as well as the E-Defense facility in Japan. A series of component- level experiments were performed initially t UB. Then a series of comprehensive system-level experiments, including several interacting components and sub-systems were performed at UNR. Finally, system level experiments using a full-scale 5-story building were performed at the E-Defense facility in Japan. Integrated with this experimental effort was a comprehensive numerical simulation program that developed experimentally verified analytical models and system and subsystem fragility functions.

    Keywords: Safety; Shock-waves loading; Load-bearing; Earthquakes; Structure; Construction; Seismic resilience; Nonstructural systems;

    Smart Cities Under Electric Energy Trends: From Autonomous Building Directive to Prosumer Target
    Nikolaos T. Athanassoulis1; Aggelos Tsakanikas1; Antonios G. Kladas2;
    Type of Paper: Invited
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 51
    Topic: 48

    The liberalization of the electricity market, in conjunction with actual environmental constraints and provisions, led to considerations for combined urban and electricity market developments promoting buildings' energy autonomy, from the perspective of transforming regional and individual electricity consumers to producer-consumer (prosumer) actors. Such a development favors renewable energy sources, penetration growth, as well as combined electric-thermal production applications with important beneficial environmental issues [1]. The existing incentives for renewable energy exploitation and carbon leakage regulations are expected to be attenuated through the large introduction of prosumers enabling energy and ancillary services optimization by extended combined load management-unit commitment operation based on bid procedures [2]. In this context, energy storage devices are expected to play an important role in increasing the impact of emerging fuels such as natural gas and hydrogen. Such a trend will be facilitated by the spreading of electric traction in all the expected transportation mediums, in order to meet the environmental requirements foreseen. To that respect, battery and fuel cell technologies involved in hybrid/electric vehicles may equally serve the network load leveling issues [3]. Moreover, the transmission and distribution electric network activities will transit to a commonly available commodity, while the necessary extensions and reinforcements will be guided by local marginal price differences. The variety of interacting resources, as well as globalization of tasks and procedures will enable large scale economies and reliability enhancements. The extended distributed regulation necessary will be in close interaction with the centrally controlled large production units through smart grid technologies accommodating the important communication exchanges by convenient internet applications of smart buildings and smart cities underway [4].
    The paper undertakes an overview of existing environmental constraints as well as current energy resources developments in the electric energy production sector. Furthermore, technological aspects of available devices involved in small hybrid production units are reported and discussed. Finally, the case study of a typical small autonomous hybrid production plant, convenient for a building prosumer activity, is presented.

    Keywords: Energy; Environment;

    References: [1] S. Choi, S.W. Min, "Optimal scheduling and operation of the ESS for prosumer market environment in grid-connected industrial complex", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, (2018), doi: 10.1109/TIA.2018.2794330.
    [2] A. Papalexopoulos, "Supplying the generation to meet the demand", IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, (2004) Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 66-73.
    [3] T. Graber, C. Romeis, E. Petrossian, J. Jaeger, "Intelligent prosumer coupling by two galvanically isolated battery storage systems", CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal IET, (2017) Vol. 2017, No. 1, pp. 1853-1857.
    [4] D. Papaioannou, A. Gakis, N.T. Athanassoulis, A. Rigos and A.A. Mamali, "A review of urban sustainability criteria under global warming stress", Interdisciplinary Environmental Review, (2015) Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 17-45.

    Spherical Depth-sensing Indentation in a Liquid Environment: Toward Cardiac Tissue Characterization
    Jean-Philippe Jehl1; Richard Kouitat Njiwa2; Pablo Maureira3;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 185
    Topic: 48

    Accurate descriptions for the mechanical behavior of human organs and tissues are required for many clinical applications. They are used for the simulation of surgical procedures (internal training and learning in continuing education) [1, 2], to integrate virtual reality systems, in engineering tissue [3], and in finite element modeling of different organs. The determination of the mechanical properties of soft biological materials is of great interest for imaging, where these material properties can be used to distinguish healthy and pathological tissues [4]. Mechanical tests are carried out to study the mechanical behavior of biological tissues [5], which include different modes of strain compression, tension, and shear. This work proposes to use spherical depth-sensing indentation experiments for the characterization of heart tissue. This tissue dries up and dies quickly, therefore a liquid environment is necessary to characterize its mechanical behavior. The spherical depth-sensing indentation has recently been adapted to operate in such an environment [6]. The experimental protocol and the method of analysis of the obtained results must be rebuilt. The presented work pinpoints the difficulties according to the tests for the cardiac tissue, and proposes some techniques to circumvent these issues. Characterizations of the cardiac tissue are obtained with theory of linear elasticity and nonlinear elasticity. The latter would appear more appropriate to describe the cardiac tissue response under a wide range of deformation.

    Keywords: Biomechanics; Biomedical engineering; Mechanics; Mechanical behavior; Characterization; Depth-sensing indentation; Cardiac tissue;

    References: [1] Misra S, Ramesh KT, Okamura AM. Modeling of tool-tissue
    interactions for computer-based surgical simulation: a literature
    review. Presence-Teleop Virt 2008; 17: 463-491.
    [2] Perrenot C, Perez M, Tran N, Jehl J-Ph, Felblinger J, Bresler L, Hubert J
    The virtual reality simulator dV-Trainer is a valid assessment tool for robotic surgical skills. Surgical Endoscopy September 2012, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 2587-2593
    [3] Fung YC. Stress, strain, growth, and remodeling of living organisms.
    In: Casey J, Crochet MJ, editors. Theoretical, experimental,
    and numerical contributions to the mechanics of fluids and
    solids. Basel/Switzerland: Birkh.user Verlag 1995: 469-482.
    [4] J-Ph. Jehl and R. Kouitat Njiwa. A (Constrained) Microstretch Approach in Living Tissue Modeling: a Numerical Investigation Using the Local Point Interpolation - Boundary Element Method. Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences, Vol.102, No.5, 2014
    [5] Gao Z, Lister K, Desai J. Constitutive modeling of liver tissue:
    experiment and theory. Ann Biomed Eng 2010; 38: 505-516.
    [6] J-Ph. Jehl, A.Voignier, R. Kouitat. On the depth sensing indentation on liquid environment for application to biological tissue. 2016 Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit

    Static and Dynamic Compression and Indentation Behavior of Aerated Autoclaved Concrete
    Mustafa Sarikaya1; Dogus Zeren1; Burak Akyol1; Taner Kavas2; Ugur Uzgan3; Dogan Soyal4; Mustafa Guden1;
    1İZMIR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, İzmir, Turkey; 2AYFON KOCATEPE UNIVERSITY, Ayfonkarahisar, Turkey; 3AKG GAZBETON, Izmir, Turkey; 4AKG GAZBETON, İzmir, Turkey;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 113
    Topic: 48

    The quasi-static and dynamic compression and indentation behavior of the autoclaved aerated concretes (AAC), with the average densities of 490, 405, 400, and 180 kg m-3 were determined experimentally. It has been noted that there are only a few studies on dynamic behavior of light-weight concrete in the literature [1-3]. The quasi-static tests were performed at the nominal strain rates of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 s-1. The high strain rate tests were conducted using a modified compression type Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) apparatus in the direct impact mode: the striker bar impinged, with an initial velocity, the concrete samples inserted at the end of the incident bar. The velocity of the striker bar in the direct impact tests was 9 and 30 m s-1, corresponding to the strain rates of 500 and 1500 s-1, respectively. The fracture strength of the quasi-statically and dynamically tested samples were further fitted to the Wiebull cumulative distribution function. The cracks initiated at the compression test plate-sample interface and progressed diagonally to the cylindrical tests sample in the quasi-static strain rates. The facture behavior of the lowest density samples were slightly different in that the cells near the upper and lower compression plate were crushed until about major diagonal or lateral cracks form. The crushing in the direct impact tests started from the impact end of the sample and the samples were completely shuttered into many small pieces, featuring enhanced energy absorption at these strain rates. A similar observation was also made previously [3]. The reduction in the Weibull distribution modulus, m, at high strain rates also showed more brittle behavior of the concrete sample. The indention behavior of the compression tested samples showed somewhat similar behavior of increased resistance to the indenter at increasing strain rates. The results clearly indicated the potentials of these materials to be used against the localized impact, while there existed almost no experimental work on these materials.

    Keywords: Ballistics and projectiles; Defense; High strain-rate phenomena; Autoclaved aerated concretes; SHPB; Direct impact; Indentation; Weibull distribution;

    References: [1] Ferrara, L., et al., "Collapsible" lightweight aggregate concrete. Part II: characterization under static and dynamic loadings. Materials and Structures, 2016. 49(5): p. 1747-1760.
    [2] Mespoulet, J., F. Plassard, and P.L. Hereil, Strain rate sensitivity of autoclaved aerated concrete from quasi-static regime to shock loading, in Dymat 2015 - 11th International Conference on the Mechanical and Physical Behaviour of Materials under Dynamic Loading, E. Cadoni, Editor. 2015, E D P Sciences: Cedex A.
    [3] Belouettar, R., J.R. Klepaczko, and Edps, A study of dynamic behavior of the autoclaved aerated concrete. Dymat 2009: 9th International Conference on the Mechanical and

    Stroboscopic Method of Fluorescence Analyses of Optically Dense Media
    Nugzar Gomidze1; Izolda Jabnidze1; Zhuzhuna Diasamidze1; Lali Kalandadze1; Omar Nakashidze1; Kakha Makharadze1; Miranda Khajishvili1; Zebur Surmanidze1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 275
    Topic: 48

    Anthropogenic pollution includes various components, and the first place nowadays belongs to oil and oil products, as well as a number of organic compounds. Fighting against this pollution is a modern problem [1,2]. According to statistical data, the annual anthropogenic flow of oil products in the sea is caused by the loss of oil on tankers, and protecting the environment from pollution is closely related to its discovery and then its control. This is a difficult problem, since the pollution factors represent a complex of different complicated organic substances. After being in water, many different processes take place (for instance: transfer in atmosphere, degradation, influence of biological factors etc.), which are less studied. A number of methods of watery media analyses have been applied and studied so far (for instance: infrared spectroscopy method, core magnetic resonance on Shpolski effect, gravitational or weight method, chromatography etc.). It is concluded that the limited accepted concentration in sea water is 50 mkg/L [3,4].
    The organic substances are conditionally divided in four classes; they are: photosynthesizing substances, phytoplanktons, amino acids, water humus-like substances, oil, and oil products [5]. There are always fluorescence solved organic substances in water media. Their fluorescence signal makes up a background on oil fluorescence signal, and it significantly blocks its discovery. We receive the fluorescence spectrums simultaneously, which reflect the spectrums received from both oil and other organic substances. There are different ways of separating these spectrums [6], but none of them are perfect. Due to this reason, it is required to investigate the spectrums of fluorescence of additional organic substances apart from oil and oil products. It is rather easy to discover the solid particle floating in the water and substances and to determine their concentration [7].
    Nowadays, for discovering and studying the oil products and organic compounds in water, spectral optical methods are used; its principal advantage in contrast to other methods is their express-diagnostics and distance. The express-diagnostics implies the quick discovery of pollution in water via optical methods in order to eliminate the pollution sources on time and liquidation of pollution sources as possible (we mean tankers, terminal etc). Though, there are some differences even among optical methods. One of them is laser fluorescence [8,9].
    Fluorescence represents a physical process and is considered as one of the kinds of luminescence. When radiating a substance with light, it is possible for the electron to move among the different levels of energetic levels. The difference of energy among the energetic levels and the frequency of absorbed light oscillation are connected to each other with Bohr's third postulate. While absorbing light, the part of the energy received by the system is used for relaxation and the other part is radiated in the image of photon of determined energy. Schematically, the photon radiation and the absorption is expressed with Iablonski diagram. Fluorescence spectroscopy represents the effective method of studying dynamic processes in solutions. This method will be greatly applied in biology, medicine, material studies, nanotechnology, and of course, ecology. The parameters of fluorescence spectroscopy, such as radiation spectrum, life duration, quantum yield, and fluorescence anisotropy represent the sensitive functions of the processes, which depend of the life duration of excited condition [10,11]. The molecules can participate in these processes which are in 10 nm distance from fluorofore at the moment of excitation.
    The molecular system is not entirely characterized with the own fluorescence in more or less intensity. Polysaturated, condensed, and of course, aromatic and polyaromatic compounds fluorescence well. Hetero atomic or electron-domain systems should be emphasized. Special organic and non-organic substances fluorescence perfectly, which are used in making displays, monitors, photodiodes and lasers. Natural compounds fluorescence in comparatively less quality [12]. Among natural admixtures which fluorescence well, noteworthy mentions are natural paints, some amino acids (Tryptophan and Tyrosine), and the proteins containing them, cofactors (NADH) and vitamins (riboflavin). Their own fluorescence is the basis of discovering and identifying natural admixtures and oil products.

    Keywords: Ecosystems;

    References: [1] J. Lakovich. "Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy". Springer Science, 2006. p. 960.
    [2] "Fluorescence excitation and emission fundamentals".
    [3] N. Gomidze, I. Jabnidze, K. Makharadze, M. Khajishvili, Z. Shashikadze, Z. Surmanidze, I. Surmanidze. "Numerical Analyses of Fluorescence Characteristics of Watery Media via Laser Spectroscopy Method". Journal of Advanced Materials Research Vol. 590 (2012), pp. 206-211.
    [4] G.G. Stokes. "Ueber die Veränderung der Brechbarkeit des Lichts". Annalen der Physik, B. 163 (11), 1852, S. 480-490
    [5] "Lidar Methods of discovering oil pollution sources". (hhtp://ecoline.kiev.ua/articles/pider/lidmru.htmi)
    [6] N.Kh. Gomidze., K.A. Makharadze, M.R. Khajishvili, I.N. Jabnidze, Z.Kh. Shashikadze. Some Issues of Fluorescence Characteristics Aqueous Media via Diagnosis of Laser Spectroscopy Method. International Journal of Engineering, Science and Innovative Technology. ISSN No: 2319-5967 (ISO 9001:2008 Certified), 3, issue 3, pp.142-152, 2014. http://www.ijesit.com/Volume%203/Issue%203/IJESIT201403_17.pdf
    [7] J.R. Albani. "New insights in the interpretation of tryptophan fluorescence. Origin of the fluorescence lifetime and characterization of a new fluorescence parameter in proteins: the emission to excitation ratio". Journal of fluorescence, 2007.
    [8] N.Kh.Gomidze, K.A.Makharadze, M.R.Khajishvili, I.N.Jabnidze, Z.Kh. Shashikadze. "Some Issues of Fluorescence Characteristics Aqueous Media via Diagnosis of Laser Spectroscopy Method". International Journal of Engineering, Science and Innovative Technology. ISSN No: 2319-5967, 3, issue 3, 2pp. 142-152, 2014.
    [9] Z. Davitadze, N. Gomidze, K. Makharadze. "Control Laser Spectrofluorimeter with Microcontrollers. Journal of Advanced Materials Research Vol". 590 (2012), pp. 201-205
    [10] Z. Shashikadze, N. Gomidze, Z. Davitadze, O. Nakashidze. "Fluoroscence spectrums of water soluble and emulsive oil". RSU works. Series: Natural Sciences and Medicine, Volume 13, pp: 238-241. Batumi.
    [11] N.Kh. Gomidze, Z.Kh.Shashikadze, K.A.Makharadze, M.R. Khajishvili, I.N. Jabnidze. "About fluorescence excitation spectrums". 6th International Conference on Advanced Optoelectronics and Lasers. Conference Proceedings. 9-13 September (2013), Sudak, Ukraine, pp. 317-319.
    [12] N.Kh. Gomidze, I.N. Jabnidze, Z.J. Surmanidze Stroboscopic Method of Fluorescence Analyses of Optically Solid Media. 2016 IEEE 7th International Conference on Advanced Optoelectronics and Lasers (CAOL). September 12-15, Odessa, Ukraine, pp. 34-36, 2016.

    Strong Electron Correlations in Oxides: The Route to Promising Functional Materials
    Bernard Raveau1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF CAEN, Normandy, France;
    Type of Paper: Plenary
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 155
    Topic: 48

    The great ability of transition metal oxides to exhibit strong electron correlations allows numerous unexpected physical properties to be generated, that are of high interest for applications as functional materials. We review herein some examples of oxides that have been the object of numerous investigations.
    The first class of oxides involves a delocalization of hole or electron carriers over their metal-oxygen framework, in order to induce exceptional conduction properties. This requires a mixed valence of the transition element and specific characteristics such as Jahn-Teller effect and structure bi-dimensionality. This is the case of high critical temperature (Tc) superconducting cuprates which are of great interest in electronic applications, but also in high current applications for saving energy, and as magnetic bearings. Similarly, perovskite oxides have been investigated for their potential as magnetic memory materials as for example in the studies of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) manganates. A third example is given by the thermoelectric cobaltates which exhibit good performances at high temperature for saving energy by conversion of waste heat into electricity.
    Two other classes of oxides have recently been shown to exhibit a potential for applications in the field of memory devices and quantum computation. The first one, called multiferroics originates from the combination of ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism or antiferromagnetism. Most of these oxides are bismuth based ferrates and manganates with the perovskite structure. Recently, a cobaltate with a triangular metallic sub-lattice, CaBaCo4O7, belonging to the Swedenborgite family has been shown to be a ferrimagnetic multiferroic with a gigantic induced electrical polarization. This huge change of polarization suggests that this oxide may have important technological applications, when a modest magnetic field below 1T is applied. The second class of oxides belongs to the triangular spin chain oxide family represented by the oxide Sr4Mn2CoO9.The latter show the possibility to realize low dimensional magnets (0D or 1D) similar to those obtained for the large family of molecular compounds, which have been extensively studied for the generation of single molecule magnets (SMM) and single chain magnets (SCM). These oxides which are highly stable compared to molecular compounds, pave the way for future investigations.

    Keywords: Electromagnetics; Energy; Metals; Superconductors;

    Structure and Optical Properties of Nanocomposite Carbon Films Obtained from Accelerated C60 Ion Flows
    Svetlana Rudchenko1; Vladimir Egorovich Pukha1; Vadym V. Starikov1; Athanasios G. Mamalis2; Sergiy N. Lavrynenko3;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 151
    Topic: 48

    The results of structural and optical investigations of thin carbon films deposited from the mass-separated beam of accelerated C60 ions with energy of 5 keV are presented. The substrate temperature ranged from 100°C to 400°C. It was established that change of the TS from 100°C to 400°C leads to the consecutive formation of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with amorphous state and superhard nanocomposites consisting nanographite structures (1-2 nm) surrounded by a diamond-like amorphous matrix. For amorphous films the band gap (Eg) was in the range of 1.2 - 1.4 eV. For nanocomposite films on optical absorption spectra, there are two energy components: one with a narrow Eg = 1 eV, which is associated with three-dimensional nanocrystals of graphite, and the other - with a wide optical gap (Eg =3,45-3,55 eV) that corresponds to the diamond-like amorphous matrix of nanocomposite. According to the results of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tunnel spectroscopy (TS), the size of graphite nanocrystals is about 1-2 nm and an amorphous shell around the graphite nanocrystals had a thickness of about 1.5 nm. The graphite component had n-type conductivity and an amorphous component had p-type conductivity. The electrical conductivity of such semiconductor nanocomposite was 103 S/m that to 6 orders higher compared to the DLC film in the amorphous state.

    Keywords: Nanocomposites;

    References: [1] Robertson J. Diamond-like amorphous carbon // Materials science and Engineering. 2002. R37. Р.129-281.
    [2] Robertson J. and O'Reilly E.P. Electronic and atomic structure of amorphous carbon // Phys. Rev. B. 1987. Vol.35, 6. P.2946-2957
    [3] Robertson J. Electronic and atomic structure of diamond-like carbon // Semicond. Sci. Technol. 2003. Vol.18. Р.S12-S19.
    [4] Tay B.K. Optical properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry / Tay B.K., Shi X., Cheah L.K., Flynn D.I. // Thin Solid Films. 1997. Vol.308. Р.268-272.
    [5] Teo K.B.K. Highest optical gap tetrahedral amorphous carbon / Teo K.B.K., Ferrari A.C., Fanchini G., Rodil S.E., Yuan J., Tsai J.T.H., Laurenti E., Tagliaferro A., Robertson J., Milne W.I. // Diamond and Related Materials. 2002. 11. P.1086-1090.

    Structure and Properties of MgB<sub>2</sub>- and MT-YBaCuO-based Materials Manufactured Under Pressure
    Tetiana Prikhna1; Michael Eisterer2; Matt Rindfleisch3; Athanasios G. Mamalis4; Michael Tomsic3; Vitaliy Romaka5; 0; Artem Kozyrev1; Myroslav Karpets1; Anton Shaternik1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 121
    Topic: 48

    The influences of technological parameters (temperature, pressure, type of cladding), composition of precursor powders, and type of additions (Dy2O3, Zr, Ti, Ti-O, SiC, Nb) on the superconducting characteristics (transition temperature, critical current density, critical magnetic fields) of MgB2 wires produced by Hyper Tech Research Inc. and of bulk materials synthesized under ambient, elevated, and high pressures in correlation with their microstructures, were studied. Microstructural observations are in good agreement with ab-initio modeling [1, 2].
    The relevant pinning centers of Abrikosov vortices in MgB2-based materials are oxygen-enriched Mg-B-O inclusions (or nanolayers) and inclusions of high borides MgBx. Their number and size depends on the synthesis parameters and dopants. Ti, Ta, and Zr bind hydrogen, make the formation of magnesium hydride impossible, and thus improve the mechanical characteristics bulk MgB2. Ti, Ta, Zr also affects the formation of higher borides, and Ti, Ta, Zr, SiC, TiC - on the redistribution of oxygen.
    The critical current density, jc of melt textured YBa2Cu3O7-d (or Y123)-based superconductors (MT-YBaCuO) depends on the perfection of texture and the amount of oxygen in the Y123 structure, but also on the density of twins and micro-cracks formed during the oxygenation (due to shrinking of the c-lattice parameter). The density of twins and micro-cracks increases with the reduction of the distance between Y2BaCuO5 (Y211) inclusions in Y123.
    A high level of critical current density demonstrated MT-YBCO oxygenated under 16 MPa oxygen pressure and MgB2 high pressure (2 GPa) - high temperature synthesized: jc (MT-YBaCuO) at 77 K was nearly 105 A/cm2 in self-field and 103 A/cm2 at 10 Т, and jc (MgB2) at 20 K was 106 at 1 T and 103 A/cm2 at 8.5 T. The MgB2 wires with added Dy2O3 (4 wt.%, 100 nm) demonstrated Jc=11 kA/cm2 at 20 K in 5 T and at 4.2 K in 12.5 T fields.

    Keywords: Superconductors;

    References: [1] T.A. Prikhna, V.V. Romaka, A.P. Shapovalov, M. Eisterer, V. Sokolovsky, H.W. Weber, G.E. Grechnev, V.G. Boutko, A.A. Gusev, A.V. Kozyrev, W. Goldacker, V.E. Moshchil, V.B. Sverdun, T. Habisreuther, C. Schmidt, V.V. Kovylaev, V.E. Shaternik, M.V. Karpets, A.V. Shaternik, "Structure and Properties of MgB2 bulks, thin films, and wires", IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 27, Is. 4, 2017, pp. 1-5, DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2016.2638201.
    [2] T. А. Prikhna, A. Р. Shapovalov, G. E. Grechnev, V. G. Boutko, A. A. Gusev, A. V. Kozyrev, M. A. Belogolovskiy, V. E. Moshchil and V. B. Sverdun, "Formation of nanostructure of magnesium diboride based materials with high superconducting characteristics", Low Temperature Physics, vol. 42, No 5, pp. 486-505, 2016.

    Study of Bonding Plates in a Fine-mesh Objects Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting of a Steel Powder
    Anton Zhukov1; Boris Barakhtin1; Pavel Kuznetcov1;
    1NRC "KURCHATOV INSTITUTE" - CRISM "PROMETEY", Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 331
    Topic: 48

    The possibility of products of complex shape with a fine-mesh structure, manufactured by the method of selective laser melting (SLM) of powders, initiated active scientific and practical investigations in the choice of geometric models, technological modes of melting, and available materials that make it possible to produce strong and lightweight structures [1, 2]. Damping elements manufactured by the SLM from metal powders, in view of their possible application in machine building and the space industry, are of particular interest. It is believed that the integrity of the products is ensured by the geometric parameters of structural support elements whose angular slopes are chosen like oriented bonds in the crystal lattice of diamond [3], and the strength of the material is obtained by the SLM and works in the product under compression conditions [4].
    The main objective is to determine the mechanisms of plastic deformation and destruction of the structural support elements in the form of tie plates operating under compression in the dissipative object (a fine-mesh model of the clip). On the EOSINT M270 unit, with a laser power of 200 W and a scanning speed of 800 mm / s, a series of clips was made using the method of selective laser melting of 316L steel powder. The tests revealed a mechanical response of the metal plate, which is characteristic for materials with an auxetic property, in which, due to the anharmonicity of the interatomic bonds, elastic counteraction to the applied deforming load occurs. It was established that the discontinuities in the continuity of the material were accompanied by local reversals of the microvolumes with the formation of oppositely curved lens-like bundles and bridges between the deformation nature. Thus, the orientation and extent of melt volumes, as well as the elastoplastic accommodation of their boundaries, are the determining structural factors for the manifestation of the auxetic effect and the growth of elastic moduli.

    Keywords: Low/High speed impact loading; Metal forming; Metals; Powder production and processing; Structural plasticity;

    References: [1] E. D. Herderick, JOM 3 v. 68 (2016) 721-723.<br />[2] S.Shan, S. H., Kang, J. R. Raney et al., Advanced Materials 29 v. 27 (2015) 4296-4301.<br />[3] C. Yan, L. Hao, A. Hussein, D. Raymont, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 62 (2012) 32-38.<br />[4] V. Bobyr, A. Deev, A. Zhukov, P. Kuznetsov, MATEC Web of Conferences 129 (2017) 01053.

    Surface Relaxation and Stress on Ti/Graphene Systems
    Sergii Sidorenko1; Weiping Gong2; Zhaohui Guo2; S. Konorev1; S.M. Voloshko1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 182
    Topic: 48

    Graphene can be used as a top contact in the solar cell, because it has good values of conductivity, optical transparency, and mechanical properties. Thus, the study of graphene influence on the structure and properties of materials surfaces is highly interesting [1].
    In our previous work, we studied the "bcc Fe / Graphene" system. In this work, we performed the research on the "hcp Ti / Graphene" system. Modified embedded atom method (MEAM) [2] describes the relaxation processes well, even the anomalous [3]. Molecular dynamics and MEAM potential was used to study of relaxation surfaces (0001), (1-100), (11-20) Ti before and after the graphene coating for two temperatures: 300K and 400K.
    Interplanar distances, atoms distribution along a normal to the surface, radial distribution function for surface layers were calculated. Their analysis is presented in this report. The form of the relaxation changes after the graphene coating. Reconstruction of the surface layer was detected in the system (11-20) Ti/graphene. The relief of the structure was demonstrated for different surfaces.Total and axial stresses were calculated for all systems and for the systems' components separately. Their analysis is also presented.
    Comparison of the results for the "bcc Fe / Graphene" and "hcp Ti / Graphene" systems were conducted. Data analysis allows conclusions to be drawn about time-temperature stability of the system, and its potential use in solar energy.

    Keywords: Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing; Shock treatment; Solar cells; Surface engineering/Wear, Non-conventional techniques;

    References: [1] A.K. Geim, Science, 324, No. 5934: 1530(2009)
    [2] Baskes M I 1992 //Phys. Rev. B 46 2727
    [3] Jun Wan, Y.L. Fan, D.W. Gong, S.G. Shenand, X.Q. Fan//Modelling. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 7 (1999) 189-206.

    Sustainable Industrial Applications via Solid State Polycondensation
    Constantine Papaspyrides1;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 183
    Topic: 48

    The core of the lecture lies in the area of the so called "green" polymerization processes towards the synthesis of polyamides, including high-performance materials. The solid-state polycondensation route, starting from polyamide monomers, will be analysed and correlated to the resulting polyamide structures, covering aliphatic and semi-aromatic repeating units. In particular it is claimed that monomer structures more organized, in terms of polar coordination and rigidity, reveal different modes of SSP behavior with the emphasis given on the undesirable solid-melt transition during reaction. Chemoenzymatic strategies will be also discussed, while the use of micro-reactors as a cost-effective research technique is launched for reaction monitoring, identification of optimum reaction conditions, and safe process scale-up.

    Keywords: Polymers;

    Synthesis of Fe-Al Alloys by a Novel Reactive Infiltration Method
    Srdjan Milenkovic1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 244
    Topic: 48

    FeAl intermetallics are potential candidates to substitute Cr/Ni based (stainless) steel parts used in high volume end consumer products such as in the lock industry, electronics, process industry, and automotive industry, in order to reduce consumption of the critical raw materials [1,2]. Their impact would therefore be much higher if a cost effective industrial process would be available, that allows manufacturing complex 3-D geometries of almost unlimited shapes from small grain size (0.1-5 μm) high ductility material [3,4]
    In this work, a novel processing method has been investigated. It involves reactive infiltration of liquid Al into the porous Fe preforms, with the aim of obtaining fine grained Fe-Al. The feasibility of using pressureless infiltration process was examined. Initially, preliminary DTA experiments were conducted to analyse the effect of the melt temperature and composition on the thermodynamic effects of reaction between the preform and the melt. It was found that the pure Al melt interacts with Fe porous preform intensively with high exothermic effect, thus causing a great risk of melting of the preform or can lead to formation of rather porous material. In the next step, the feasibility of pressureless reactive infiltration was investigated using two different approaches. The first one is the drop casting of the melt into the preform being contained in a mould. The second one is the immersion method, which is applied by immersing the preform into the melt pool. In both cases, parameters like melt temperature, mould material, and time were investigated, and their influence on the final microstructure, morphology, and phase constitution has been discussed. Comparison and analysis of the outcomes of the DTA, drop casting, and immersion experiments provided useful results to understand main features of the reactive infiltration process and hints on how the process can be further optimized by a suitable heat management.

    Keywords: Ferrous and non-ferrous materials; High temperature/high pressure techniques; Metals;

    References: [1] P. Kratochval, Intermetallics, 16 (2008) 587-591.
    [2] D.G. Morris, M.A. Morris-Munoz, Intermetallics, 7 (1999) 1121-1129.
    [3] N.S. Stoloff, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 258 (1998) 1-14.
    [4] N.S Stoloff, C.T Liu, S.C Deevi, Intermetallics, 8 (2000) 1313-1320.

    Synthesis of ZnSe Films by Electrochemical Deposition for Assembly of Photo-transforming Heterostructures
    Dmitri S. Sofronov1; Athanasios G. Mamalis2; Vadym V. Starikov3; E.M. Sofronova1; E.A. Vaksler1; P.V. Mateychenko1; Sergiy N. Lavrynenko4;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 170
    Topic: 48

    The zinc selenide films were synthesized using an electrochemical method in alkaline electrolyte. The influence of deposition options (zinc ions concentration, cathodic current density and electrolysis duration) on ZnSe films formation is discussed. It is shown that the increase of film thickness and its porosity is observed at increase of current density and zinc ions concentration in electrolyte. The most compact films are formed when the zinc concentration in the electrolyte is less than 0.05 M and the current density is not higher than 35 mA/cm2. The obtained ZnSe film had p-type conductivity and a resistivity of 105-106 Ohm·m. It was synthesized heterostructure ZnS/ZnSe/Ni including the p-n transition. The parameters of the diode heterostructure were determined by the dark IV-characteristic.

    Keywords: Zinc selenide; Films; Electrochemistry; Alkaline electrolyte; Heterostructures; Manufacturing;

    The Correlation Between the Mineralogical Composition and the Surface Properties of Inorganic Natural Materials
    Yuliya Danchenko1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 225
    Topic: 48

    Inorganic natural materials (INM) play an important role in most manufacturing and industrial fields. One of the most widespread approaches of INM usage is as the filling of polymeric structural materials (PSM) for building and city infrastructure. The INM usage as filling is determined by its environmental friendliness, affordability, and cheapness. Thanks to such filling, there is the possibility to get PSM of various technical and technological functions, such as: trickling and gluing compositions, thick-film and mastic coverings, poured and injection materials, compositions for product forming, as well as materials for restoration and remedial works. The usage of INM allows the creation of PSM according to special service characteristics: resistant to biologically and chemically aggressive environments, or conversely, able to biologically ruin fire-proofing, atmosphere-proofing, heat-proofing, and resistance to several kinds of radiation with improved adhesion resistance and other characteristics [1].
    The structure, technology, and service characteristics of PSM depend on the interface line interactions of the phases' polymer fillers. The intensity and the manner of interphase interactions are determined by the polymer nature and INM surface properties, which are added in a dispersed form.
    INM surface properties are characterized by the chemical nature of the surface active centers and free surface energy. Brønsted and Lewis surface active centers with particular value of acid basic power pKa are developed as the result of water molecule adsorption (desorption) [2]. Free surface energy is determined by uncompensated surface energy on the interface line of the phases "solid-body-gas" and depends on INM mineralogical nature [3]. Thus, it is evident that the mineralogical composition, pKa of active centers and the value of INM free surface energy correlate with each other. There have not been any research that confirms this hypothesis.
    Three INM mineralogical groups have been chosen for the research. They are clayey, quartz, and oxide. The mineralogical composition was determined by the X-ray phase analysis. The acid basic values of the surface were researched with the help of theoretical quantum-chemical modeling and the experimental potentiometric and the colorimetric methods [4, 5]. The value of free surface energy was estimated by computing way with the usage [3].
    Consequently, the correlational relations between mineralogical composition, surface acid basic, and INM energy characteristics have been found out during the complex research. It has been demonstrated, that in the limits of quartz, clayey, and acid INM mineralogical groups, these relations exist with the correlation coefficient of 0,62 - 0,93.

    Keywords: Ceramics; Composites; Multifunctional materials; Polymers; Surface engineering/Wear, Non-conventional techniques;

    References: [1] G. Pohl, Woodhead Publishing, (2010) 512.
    [2] Yu. Tarasevich, Kyiv, Naukova dumka, (2011) 390.
    [3] C. M. Miller, Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science (2010) 218.
    [4] Yu. Danchenko, V. Andronov, E. Rybka, S. Skliarov, Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 4, 12(88) (2017) 17-25.
    [5] Yu. Danchenko, V. Andronov, E. Barabash, T. Obigenko, E. Rybka, R. Meleshenko, A. Romin, Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 6, 12(90) (2017) 4-12.

    The Ethics of Sustainability
    Jeremy Ramsden1; Athanasios G. Mamalis2; Nikolaos T. Athanassoulis3;
    Type of Paper: Keynote
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 95
    Topic: 48

    As crowding on our planet increases, sustainability has become a major preoccupation at many levels: national and supranational (for example, the European Union is strongly promoting the "circular economy", essentially a waste management strategy), but also local and even individual. A considerable body of academic work has arisen around the "circular economy", mostly of recent origin, even though the roots of the concept go back decades and even centuries. On the whole the field seems to suffer from a dearth of analytical thinking, and much of the literature is little more than polemics between supporters and detractors, along with the loose injection of words like "entropy". On the material plane, at the atomic level everything is recycled, except hydrogen and helium; at higher levels involving sophisticated superatomic structures, an illusion of recycling may depend on inadequate definitions of materials that fail to capture all their essential features (for example, paper cannot be endlessly recycled because the cellulose fibres are progressively shortened). This paper seeks to establish what precisely sustainability and the circular economy mean, what the intentions of their protagonists are, and how they fit in with alternative moral schemata, notably the individual versus the social. The goal of our investigation is to establish whether the circular economy can make any claim on our attention as a worthwhile pursuit.

    Keywords: Energy; Nanocomposites; Nanoparticles; Nanostructured materials; Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing; Biomedical sustainability

    References: [1] Ramsden, J.J. The impacts of nanotechnology. Nanotechnol. Perceptions 7 (2011) 28-66.

    [2] Ramsden, J.J. The sustainability of "postmodern" university research. In: Philosophy and Synergy of Information: Sustainability and Security (eds P.J. Kervalishvili & S.A. Michailidis), pp. 74-87. Amsterdam: IOS Press (2012).

    [3] Ramsden, J.J. and Kiss-Haypál, G. On a possible limit to economic progress. Nanotechnol. Perceptions 9 (2013) 71-81.

    [4] Ramsden, J.J. Applied Nanotechnology (3rd edn). Amsterdam: Elsevier (2018).

    The Influence of Aging Treatments on a Ti-Ni 50.7 at. % Mechanical Spring
    Hugo De Souza Oliveira1; Henrique Alves Bandeira2; Aline Souza De Paula1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF BRASILIA, Brasilia, Brazil; 2UNIVERSITY OF BRASILIA, Brasília, Brazil;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 363
    Topic: 48

    Near equiatomic Ti-Ni shape memory alloys have been attracting much interest for practical applications in many research fields, such as medical, orthodontic, mechanical, and aerospace industries [1], [2].
    The remarkable ability in recovering large strains as well as generating high stresses has caused an increase in manufacturing devices made up of these materials[1], [3]-[5].
    Many studies assert that shape memory characteristics of binary Ti-Ni alloys can be improved through specific thermomechanical treatments, such as annealing following cold working [6]-[8], thermal and/or stress cycling [9], and aging after solution treatment [6], [8], [10]. For Ni rich Ti-Ni alloys, aging treatment is the most effective method for improving the shape memory and mechanical characteristics of the alloys [6], [8], [10].
    In literature, many studies correlate the effects of aging treatments on the transformation behavior of the Ti-Ni alloys [5], [6], [11]-[15], however few focus on how it can influence the stress-strain hysteresis in mechanical elements [3], such as mechanical springs. This study presents how aging treatments ranging from low to high temperatures (573K to 773K) [16] for different times can affect the cyclic hysteretic behavior of a Ti-Ni 50.7 at. % shape memory spring. The findings enable the choice of appropriate heat treatments where specific energy dissipation rates are required.

    Keywords: Ti-Ni springs; Ageing treatment; Hysteresis Loop; Shape memory alloy

    References: [1] D. C. Lagoudas, Shape Memory Alloys: Modeling and Engineering Applications. Springer, 2008.<br />[2] J. Mohd Jani, M. Leary, A. Subic, and M. A. Gibson, A review of shape memory alloy research, applications and opportunities, Mater. Des. 1980-2015, vol. 56, pp. 1078-1113, Apr. 2014.<br />[3] S. Jiang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zahng, L. Hu, and Y. Liang, Effect of solution treatment and aging on microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 3658-3667, 2013.<br />[4] Y. Zheng, F. Jiang, L. Li, H. Yang, and Y. Liu, Effect of ageing treatment on the transformation behaviour of Ti 50.9at.% Ni alloy, Acta Mater., vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 736-745, 2008.<br />[5] Q. C. Fan et al., Influences of transformation behavior and precipitates on the deformation behavior of Ni-rich NiTi alloys, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 700, pp. 269-280, Jul. 2017.<br />[6] S. Miyazaki, Y. Ohmi, K. Otsuka, and Y. Suzuki, Characteristics of Deformation And Transformation Pseudoelasticity In Ti-Ni Alloys, J. Phys. Colloq., vol. 43, no. C4, pp. C4-255-C4-260, Dec. 1982.<br />[7] H. C. Lin and S. K. Wu, The tensile behavior of a cold-rolled and reverse-transformed equiatomic TiNi alloy, Acta Metall. Mater., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1623-1630, May 1994.<br />[8] J. I. Kim and S. Miyazaki, Effect of nano-scaled precipitates on shape memory behavior of Ti-50.9at.%Ni alloy, Acta Mater., vol. 53, no. 17, pp. 4545-4554, Oct. 2005.<br />[9] S. Miyazaki, Y. Igo, and K. Otsuka, Effect of thermal cycling on the transformation temperatures of TiNi alloys, Acta Metall., vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2045-2051, Oct. 1986.<br />[10] S. Miyazaki, T. Imai, Y. Igo, and K. Otsuka, Effect of cyclic deformation on the pseudoelasticity characteristics of Ti-Ni alloys, Metall. Trans. A, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 115-120, Jan. 1986.<br />[11] J. Khalil-Allafi, A. Dlouhy, and G. Eggeler, Ni4Ti3-precipitation during aging of NiTi shape memory alloys and its influence on martensitic phase transformations, Acta Mater., vol. 50, no. 17, pp. 4255-4274, 2002.<br />[12] J. Khalil-Allafi, G. Eggeler, A. Dlouhy, W. W. Schmahl, and C. Somsen, On the influence of heterogeneous precipitation on martensitic transformations in a Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 378, no. 1-2, pp. 148-151, Jul. 2004.<br />[13] G. Fan, W. Chen, S. Yang, J. Zhu, X. Ren, and K. Otsuka, Origin of abnormal multi-stage martensitic transformation behavior in aged Ni-rich Ti-Ni shape memory alloys, Acta Mater., vol. 52, no. 14, pp. 4351-4362, 2004.<br />[14] B. K. Ravari, S. Farjami, and M. Nishida, Effects of Ni concentration and aging conditions on multistage martensitic transformation in aged Ni-rich Ti-Ni alloys, Acta Mater., vol. 69, pp. 17-29, May 2014.<br />[15] G. Fan, Y. Zhou, W. Chen, S. Yang, X. Ren, and K. Otsuka, Precipitation kinetics of Ti3Ni4 in polycrystalline Ni-rich TiNi alloys and its relation to abnormal multi-stage transformation behavior, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 438-440, no. SPEC. ISS., pp. 622-626, Nov. 2006.<br />[16] X. Wang, B. Verlinden, and S. Kustov, Multi-stage martensitic transformation in Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys, Funct. Mater. Lett., vol. 10, no. 01, p. 1740004, Dec. 2016.

    The Investigation of Low-velocity Drop Weight Impact on Concrete Plates
    Alper Tasdemirci1; Semih Berk Seven1; Mehmet Alper Cankaya2; Cetin Uysal3; Selcuk Saatci3; Mustafa Guden1;
    Type of Paper: Regular
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 123
    Topic: 48

    Concrete is used as a structural material which has a very wide range of applications. Concrete structures may be exposed to a variety of static and dynamic loading conditions in their lifespan. Due to this reason, it is important to investigate and understand the mechanical behavior of concrete under different impact conditions. In literature, the drop weight testing machine was used to investigate the impact behavior of different kind of cementitious material under low-velocity impact [1]. Perforation tests were performed using circular plain and fiber reinforced concrete [2]. In this study, drop weight impact tests on prismatic concrete plates were accomplished using drop tower test apparatus and modeled using finite element software LS-DYNA. In numerical analysis, JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CONCRETE (MAT_111) material model was selected to define material model for concrete samples since this material model is well suited for concrete materials subjected to impact loadings [3]. The dynamic mechanical characterization study of concrete material to determine the parameters of the HJC material model was done in the previous work [4]. The test setup consists of 20 mm diameter hemispherical striker tip impacting on a 200x200x20 mm prismatic specimen with the 100 mm hollow specimen holder. To see the effect of striker impact velocity on the behavior of concrete, two different impact velocities (1 m/s and 3 m/s) were applied. The effectiveness of the HJC material model and the validation of the parameters used in the numerical analysis were presented with the comparative study. The results obtained from experimental tests are in a good agreement with the numerical analysis results. Also, numerical results showed similar crack profiles with the experimental results.

    Keywords: Ceramics; Low/High speed impact loading; Mechanics;

    References: [1] N. Banthia, S. Mindess, A. Bentur, and M. Pigeon, "Impact Testing of Concrete Using a Drop-Weight Impact Machine Impact Testing of Concrete Using a Drop-weight Impact Machine," vol. 1106, no. March, pp. 63-69, 1989.
    [2] S. Mindess and C. Yan, "Perforation of plain and fibre reinforced concretes subjected to low-velocity impact loading," Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 83-92, 1993.
    [3] T. J. Holmquist, G. R. Johnson, and W. H. Cook, "A computational constitutive model for concrete subjected to large strains, high strain rates, and high pressures.pdf," 14th International Symposium on Ballistic, Quebec City, Canada. pp. 1-10, 1993.
    [4] A. Tasdemirci, M. A. Cankaya, S. B. Seven, C. Uysal, S. Saatci, M. Guden "The effect of strain rate on the compressive mechanical behavior of concrete," Int. J. Impact Eng., vol. under review, 2018.

    The Making of UniPore Material Through Explosive Welding Process and the Mechanical Response Under Static and Dynamic Loading
    Kazuyuki Hokamoto1;
    Type of Paper: Invited
    Type of Presentation: Oral
    Id Paper: 7
    Topic: 48

    Uni-directional porous (UniPore) material is one of the porous materials consisting of many uniformly elongated holes isolated on thin metal walls. It was fabricated through explosive welding process using many small pipes inserted into a large pipe [1]-[3], and such material has potential applications for energy absorption during impact loading and others. For the fabrication, a large pipe was covered by a thick ANFO based explosive cylindrical layer to accelerate the large pipe inward. The pipes were successfully welded tightly and no fracture on the small pipe walls was observed even by using a thin pipe, the thickness of which was 0.2mm.
    The samples made by copper were cut into short pieces and compressed both statically and dynamically. The mechanical response under static compression tests shows a well-known "plateau region", which is possible to consume energy through large deformation. Furthermore, the dynamic response using a powder gun compressed at 400-600 m/s also shows a plateau through PVDF gauge measurement, and the deformation process is visualized using high-speed camera and compared with numerical simulation using AUTODYN code, which suggests good agreement.

    Keywords: Explosives; High strain-rate phenomena; Low/High speed impact loading; Mechanics; Metal forming; Metals;

    References: [1] K. Hokamoto, M. Vesenjak, Z. Ren, Mater. Lett. 137 (2014) 323-327.
    [2] M. Vesenjak, K. Hokamoto, M. Sakamoto, T. Nishi, L. Krstulović-Opara, Z. Ren, Materials & Design 90 (2016) 867-880.
    [3] K. Hokamoto, K. Shimomiya, M. Nishi, L. Krstulović-opara, M. Vesenjak, Z. Ren, Z., J. Mater. Process. Technol. 251 (2018) 262-266.

    Transition Metal Oxides: A Vast Investigative Field for Functional Materials
    Bernard Raveau1;
    1UNIVERSITY OF CAEN, Normandy, France;
    Type of Paper: Plenary
    Type of Presentation: Poster
    Id Paper: 156
    Topic: 48

    Transition metal oxides have been the object of numerous investigations by solid state chemists and physicists since the pioneering work on oxygen tungsten bronzes by Hägg and Magnéli in the 1950a's. Due to the diversity of their structural frameworks and of the d-electron interactions of the transition elements, very attractive physical properties were observed for oxides. Their high stability at different temperatures and in various atmospheres and the possibility to fabricate them either in the form of dense polycrystalline ceramics, or of single crystals, but also of thin films and as nanoparticles, make that the properties of these materials can be easily tailored and optimized by doping with various elements in view of specific applications. Curiously, the realization of oxide-based functional materials has been rather limited until 1986, date of the discovery of high critical temperature (Tc) superconductivity in cuprates. We discuss herein the role of several classes of transition metal oxides in the realization of functional materials.
    From the numerous high Tc cuprates that were discovered during the rush to superconductivity, YBCO and BiSCCO superconductors which exhibit a zero resistance below 90 K/ 110 K , are now used as functional materials. The latter allow high magnetic fields to be produced without any overheating and consequently are used for medical purpose (magnetic resonance imaging of the brain), but also in high current transportation cables, current leads and accelerator electromagnets. Electronic applications of these cuprates have also been realized, as for example electrical motors, SQUID detectors based on Josephson junctions (earth, submarine, brain) and microprocessors for ultra-rapid computers. The Meissner effect of these oxides makes that they are used in magnetic levitation as for example in Maglev trains and magnetic bearings.
    Cobaltates represent a very important class that is investigated for producing and saving energy in transportation. This is the case of lithium-based cobaltates that are used as electrode materials in lithium ion batteries. and of bismuth/alkaline earth "misfit" cobaltates which exhibit good thermoelectric performances at high temperature in air (high thermoelectric power, low resistivity and low thermal conductivity) allowing to save energy by conversion of waste heat into electricity. Similarly, cobaltates and manganates with an ordered oxygen deficient perovskite structure exhibit an exceptionally high oxygen mobility and consequently are attractive materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC's) applications.
    Metal oxides containing Mn/Fe/Co have also been investigated for their potential in the field of memory devices and quantum computation. This is exemplified by numerous studies of colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) manganates. Recently, oxides called multiferroics, with complex properties, combining ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism have been discovered, with gigantic variation of polarization suggesting possible applications in this field.

    Keywords: Ceramics; Energy; Multifunctional materials; Nanotechnology/Nanomaterials manufacturing;

    To be Updated with new approved abstracts